Prithviraj Kapoor and others. It was also the era of the “Fearless”Nadia who performed daring stunts in Homi Wadia’s movie. Hername became synonymous with her role in Hunterwali which isremembered to this day.With the dawn of Saigal era (1932-1947) new techniques evolvedthat could allow the actors to just mimic the off-camera song thathad already been recorded in the voice of the playback singer. Evenhere, the songs used to be played on the loudspeakers for the actorsto mimic the songs. These songs could also be broadcast on the radioand also made into flat discs called “records” whose production, by1931, was in the hands of a a single record company, EMI.It was R.C. Boral (d.1981), a stalwart of the New Theatres atCalcutta, who had introduced the first playback singing for a moviecalled Dhoop Chhaaon (Bhagyachakra in Bengali version) in 1935.Punkaj Mallick, his colleague and an all-round figure, had earliermade his debut as Music Director in Yahudi ki Ladki (1933) andintroduced the use of western instruments such as piano andaccordion in songs and also introduced the background musical scoreto enhance the action, the mood and the tempo of the film scenes, just as Naushad was to mix the clarinet, the flute and other musicalinstruments and improve the background music. The Thirties couldboast of many fine movies that included Shantaram’s Amrit Manthan(1934), Bombay Talkies’ Achhut Kanya (1936), Mehboob Khan’s EkHi Rasta and Aurat (1939), and Minerva Movietone’s Pukar (1939). Itwas also the time when there were many gramophone stars. A 1938-movie was even named Gramophone Singer (Music Anil Biswas)which had K.L. Saigal.By 1940, many gramophone stars who could not make it to the filmmusic as playback singers soon lost their standing in the musicworld. In the Forties, some memorable films were made such asShantaram’s Dr. Kotnis ki Amar Kahani, K.A. Abbas’s Dharti Ke Lal,Chetan Anand’s Neecha Nagar, Uday Shankar’s Kalpana, MehboobKhan’s Roti, Wadia’s Court Dancer, Sohrab Modi’s Sikandar andPrithvi Vallabh, Raj Kapoor’s Aag and Barsaat, and Vijay Bhatt’s RamRajya and Bharat Milap.