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ch22

ch22

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Published by: gatzke on Feb 20, 2008
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-
CHAPTER22
SamplingandFilteringofContinuousMeasurements
Thespecificationsforacomputer-basedsystemtoperformdataacquisitionandcontrolmustaddressseveralquestions:1.Howoftenshoulddatabeacquiredfromagivenmeasurementpoint;thatis,whatsamplingrateshouldbeemployed?
2.
Dothemeasurementscontainasignificantamountof
noise?
Ifso,canthedatabeconditioned
(filtered)
toreducetheeffectsofnoise?'
3.
Whatdigitalcontrollawshouldbeemployed?
In
thischapterwewillprimarilybeconcernedwithquestions
1
and2.Question3willbeaddressedinChapter26.ThemodelingandanalysisofdigitalsystemsarecoveredinChapters23-25.
22.1SAMPLINGANDSIGNALRECONSTRUCTION
AsindicatedinChapter21,whenadigitalcomputerisusedforcontrol,continuousmeasurementsareconvertedintodigitalformbyananalogtodigitalconverter(ADC).Thisoperationisnecessarybecausethedigitalcomputercannotdirectlyprocessananalogsignal;firstthesignalmustbesampledatdiscretepointsintimeandthenthesamplesmustbedigitized.Thetimeintervalbetweensuccessivesamplesisreferredtoasthesamplingperiod
t:..t.
Tworelatedtermsarealsoused:thesamplingrate
Is
=
II
t:..t
andthesamplingfrequency
Ws
=
2Til
M.IfMhasunitsofminutes,then
Is
hasunitsofcyclesperminuteand
Ws
hasunitsofradiansperminute.Figure22.1showsanidealizedperiodicsamplingoperationinwhichthesampledsignal
y*(t)
isaseriesofimpulsesthatrepresentsthemeasurements
Yo,Yb
h,
...
atthesamplinginstants,
to,t),
t2,
..•.
TherepresentationinFig.22.1isalsoreferredtoas
impulsemodulation
[1]
andisusedintheanalysisofsampleddatasystems.Itisbasedontheassumptionthatthesamplingoperationoccursinstantaneously.
In
digitalcontrolapplicationsthecontrolleroutputsignalmustbeconvertedfromdigitaltoanalogformbeforebeingsenttothefinalcontrolelement.Thisoperationisreferredtoas
signalreconstruction
andisperformedbydigitaltoanalogconverters(DACs),whichweredescribedinChapter21.TheDACoperatesasazero-orderholdasisshownschematicallyinFig.22.2.Notethattheoutputsignal
530
 
22.1SamplingandSignalReconstruction
531
y(t)
----~~
y*(t)(a)
Thesampler
Y3Y2
Yl
Yo
oo
tlt2t3t4t5
Time
(b)
Continuoussignal
y(t)
andsamples
y
*(t)
I
-i
<It
1-+
o
o
tlt2t3t4t5t6t7
Time
(c)
Sampledsignal
Figure22.1.
Idealized,periodicsampling.Digitaltoanalogconverter
y(t)
X
<It
y*(t)
Zero-order
:I
hold
I
I
L
J
(a)
Zero-orderholdasadigital-to-analogconverter
y(t)
o
tlt2t3t4t5
•••
Time-
(b)
Comparisonoforiginalsignal,
y(t),
andreconstructedsignal,
YH(t)
Figure22.2.
Digital-to-analogconversionusingazero-orderhold.
 
532
SAMPLINGANDFILTERINGOFCONTINUOUSMEASUREMENTS
Figure22.3.
Signalreconstructionwithafirst-orderhold.
fromthezero-orderhold
Y
H(t)
isheldconstantforonesamplingperioduntilthenextsampleisreceived.Theoperationofthezero-orderholdcanbeexpressedasfort,,_1:S
t
<
t"
(22-1)Othertypesofholddevicescanbeemployed;forexample,a
first-orderhold
extrapolatesthedigitalsignallinearlyduringthetimeintervalfrom
t,,_1
to
t"
basedonthechangeduringthepreviousinterval:for
t,,_1
:S
t
<
(II
(22-2)Figure22.3illustratestheoperationofafirst-orderhold.Althoughsecond-orderandotherhigher-orderholdscanbedesignedandimplementedasspecialpurposeDACs
[1-3],
thesemorecomplicatedapproachesdonotoffersignificantadvantagesformostprocesscontrolproblems.Consequently,wewillemphasizethezero-orderholdsinceitisthemostwidelyusedholddeviceforprocesscontrol.Figure22.4showstheblockdiagramforatypicalfeedbackcontrolloopwithadigitalcontroller.Notethatbothcontinuous(analog)andsampled(digital)signalsappearintheblockdiagram.Thetwosamplerstypicallyoperatesynchronouslyandhavethesamesamplingperiod.However,
multiratesampling
inwhichone
ComputerDAC
r---l
Ip
Final~
I
C
HoldontrolProcessontroller
I
element
I
___
.-J
I
L
..J
ADC
B
MeasuringelementADC:AnalogtodigitalconverterDAC:Digitaltoanalogconverter
Figure22.4.
Simplifiedblockdiagramforcomputercontrol.

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