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ch25

ch25

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06/16/2009

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CHAPTER25
AnalysisofSampled-DataControlSystems
Theanalysisofsampled-datacontrolsystemsiscomplicatedbythepresenceofbothcontinuousanddiscontinuous(discrete)componentsinthecontrolloop.Justaswithcontinuoussystems,ablockdiagramofthefeedbackcontrolsystemcanserveasthebasisforanalyzingthedynamicbehaviorofadigitalsystem.Themainfocusofthischapteristheapplicationofblockdiagramalgebratoobtaintheclosed-looptransferfunctionandtheanalysisoftheresultingcharacteristicequationtoevaluatecontrolsystemstability.However,caremustbeexercisedinthedevelopmentoftheclosed-looptransferfunction.Inparticular,therulesforblockmultiplicationusedforcontinuoussystemsmustbemodifiedwhensamplingoperationsareincluded.Severaltechniquesbasedonanalysisofthecharacteristicequationoftheclosed-looptransferfunctionarepresentedwhichcanbeusedefficientlytodetermineloopstability.Again,aswithcontinuoussystems,thestabilityofasampled-datacontrolsystemisanecessaryconditionforoperability.
25.1OPEN-lOOPBLOCKDIAGRAMANALYSIS
If
G(s)
isthetransferfunctionbetweenacontinuousinputandcontinuousoutput,thesituationwhereboth
x(t)
and
y(t)
aresampledisshowninFig.25.1.Iftheoutputisactuallynotphysicallysampled,afictitioussamplercanbeinsertedforpurposesofanalysis,asshowninFig.25.2.Thisprocedureisemployedbecauseinz-transformanalysisonlyvaluesoftheoutputatthesamplinginstantshaveanyvalidity.Itisusuallyassumedthatbothsamplersactsynchronouslyandhavethesamesamplingperiod.Thesampledinputsignal
x"'(t)
(seeEq.24-1)isaseriesofimpulses.Then
X"'(s),
theLaplacetransformof
x"'(t),
hasbeenshowninEq.24
3
to
be
orinz-transformnotation,
590
X"'(s)
X(z)
~
x(ntlt)e
-/1;:"{511~0
~
x(nLlt)Z-n
11=0
(25-1)
(25-2)
 
25.1Open-LoopBlockDiagramAnalysis
591
x(t)
X(s)
)(~
tJ.t
X*(s)
y
*(t)
~
Y*(s)
Figure25.1
Blockdiagramwithsampledinputandoutputsignals.
x(t)
X(s)
)(
x*(t)
tJ.t
X*(s)
"\.;
Y
*(t)
--~
r--
tJ.t
y*(s)
II
y~t)y(s)
Figure25.2
Additionofafictitioussampler.
Thesampledinputsignalpassesthroughthecontinuousprocess
G(s),
yieldingacontinuousoutputsignal
yet)
(or
Y(s)).
Therefore,bythedefinitionofthetransferfunction,
yes)
=
G(s)X*(s)
(25-3)Nextconsiderthesamplingoftheoutputsignal.Asbefore,wedefineY*
(s)
astheLaplacetransformof
y*(t),
theimpulsesequenceobtainedbysampling
yet)
(seeEq.25-1).Wewilluseanasterisktodenotethe
startransform,
whichindicatestheimpulseoperatoractingontheLaplacetransformofasignal.Itwillbeapplicabletotransferfunctionsaswellasinputsandoutputs.Forexample,tofindthesampledsignal
Y*(s),
thestartransformisappliedtobothsidesofEq.25-3toobtain
Y*(s)
=
[G(s)X*(s)]*
=
G*(s)X*(s)
(25-4)Since
X*(s)
isaseriesofimpulses,
G(s)X*(s)
representsasequenceofimpulseresponsesforacontinuous-timeprocess.Thestartransformappliedtothissignalindicatesthesamplingof
G(s)X*(s)
toyield
Y*(s).
Theproofof(25-4)usingfrequency-domainanalysishasbeengivenbyFranklinandPowell
[1,
p.86]andisakeyresultforblockdiagramanalysisofsampled-datacontrolsystems.Notealsothat(25-4)isequivalentto
Y(z)
=
G(z)X(z)
(25-5)where
G(z)
isthepulsetransferfunctionandz
=
es':'t.
Thisrelationwasderivedusingatime-domainanalysisinChapter24(seeEq.24-77andFig.24.3).
PulseTransferFunctionsofSystemsinSeries
ConsiderthetwosystemsshowninFigs.25.3and25.4andderivethepulsetransferfunction
Y(z)/X(z)
foreachsystem.ForFig.25.3,
yes)
=
G1(s)GZ(s)X*(s)
Consequently,applicationofthestartransformgives
Y*(s)
=
[G1(s)GZ(s)]*X*(s)
(25-6)(25-7)(25-8)Since
vet),
theoutputfromGj,isnotsampled,theproductofG1GZoperateson
X*(s)
toform
Y*(s).
Thenfromthedefinitionofthez-transformitfollowsthat
Y(z)X(z)
=
Z
[G1(s)GZ(s)]
=
G1GZ(z)
 
592
ANALYSISOFSAMPLED-DATACONTROLSYSTEMS
x(t)
X(s)
A~
t:.t
X*(s)
,--X_
y*(t)
t:.t--
_Y*(s)y(t)
~
Y(s)
Figure25.3
Twocontinuoussystemsinserieswithsampledinputandoutputsignals.
x(t)
X(s)
)(~
t:.t
X*(s)
-X~
r
t:.t
Y*(s)
I
y(t)
~
Y(s)
Figure25.4
Twocontinuoussystemsinserieswithasamplerin-between.
NotethatEq.25-8continuesuseofthenotationintroducedonpg.576that
GjG2(z)
~Z[Gj(s)G2(s)].jItisimportanttonotethatingeneralGj(z)G2(z)
#
GjG2(z)AspecialcaseofthisequationwasderivedinEcj.24-107,whereGjwasthezeroorderhold.NowconsidertheseriesofblocksshowninFig.25.4.Here
yes)
=
G2(s)V*(s)
UsingEq.25-4,(25-9)Combininggives
V*
(s)
Gns)x*(s)
(25-10)
yes)
=
G2(s)Gns)x*(s)
Nextapplythestartransformtobothsidesoftheequation:
Y*(s)
=
G2(s)Gj(s)x*(s)
orintermsofz-transforms(25-11)(25-12)
Y(z)
(25-13)(25-14)Thus,inthiscase
Y(z)
X(z)
=
G2(z)Gj(z)ThetermG2(z)Gj(z)indicatesthatthez-transformsofGjand
G2
areobtainedseparately,thenmultiplied.Theresultisindependentoftheorderofmultiplication.
EXAMPLE25.1
ShowthatifGj(s)and
G2(s)
arebothfirst-ordermodels,G2(z)Gj(z)
#
G2Gj(z).

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