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Behavioral Biology (Introduction)

Behavioral Biology (Introduction)

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INSIDE: - Approaches to the Study of Behavior
- Behavioral Genetics
- Learning
- The Development of Behavior
- Animal Cognition
INSIDE: - Approaches to the Study of Behavior
- Behavioral Genetics
- Learning
- The Development of Behavior
- Animal Cognition

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Published by: Jonathan Robert Kraus (OutofMudProductions) on Feb 25, 2014
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Approaches o the Srudy ofBehavior
Behavior can bc dctued rs dre way ar arimrl responds o srim-uli in its enviromrcnt. A stimulus might bc as simple as detec-tion ofthe presencc f f<x)d n the enlironmcnt. n rhis sense,a bacterial ell "behaves" lv moving oward highcr conce,rcmtions of, sugar n its surrouDding mednun. This lxhavior isverv simple nd is well suitcd o rhe ife ofbactcria, allovingthese rganisms o tive and reproduce.\" rnir|lrl, rohrd. hr 1 uccupied iFercnr.r\ ron,nenrsrnd ficed diverse roblcms har affected hcir surrival Dd re-production. heir ne*ous slstems nd behavnrr orconitandybecrDre more complex. Ncnrus sr,stems ercive and processinformation and trigger adxptive rocor esponses, vhich esee as patterns f behavior
Behaviot's two components are its immediateqause and its eyolutionary origin
Itrt crn talk about animil beh:rvn,r n nvo diflerclt ways. irst,rvc minht ask r-o ir all vorls-that is, how the animal senses,ncivc Detworks, r internal statc provide a physiolosical :rsisfor thc behavior. he "how" of behavior s a question abortpraximat ,trilti|n. To anih'zc rhe proimdte cause f behav-io1 se nighr lreasLrre ormone evels or record he inpulseactiviF of neurons n the animal. .or onrnple, a male songbirdnlay snlg during dre breeding cason ecause f an increasedlere1 of thc steroid sex hormonc estosterone, vhich binds oreceptors n the br:rin nd triggtrs he prodnction ofsongi rhiserphmtion r.ould describc he pro:rimate ause f the malebr ,1, 'ng.llrZr a behalior evolved an investigation fits adaptilcvalue is a question conccming Lbj,Mte u L . tian. To studv thcultimate cause f I behavior, 'e attempt o dcternine horv tinllucnc.d he ani'n 's sunnd or reproductivc uccess. rnrlebird siDqs o defend territorv FrD orher mrlcs and o actracta cmilc with \drich to reproducei his s the ultinraer or evo-l:Li,,rrr. <rpLn:rior br hc,,,d1(\ o, Jli/J ,,n.The sudy of behar rr has a d a ong historv ofconn oveny.Onc source of controveny has been he quesrion f whethcrbehrvnlr s dercrnined norc bj.an indilidurlls genes r bl itslellrning nd experieDce.In thcr s.ords, s bcharior he esult ofmturc (nlsnnct) r nurnrre cxpdence)? n thc past, his ques-tion was considered n eithcr/or proposition, rurrr now roon
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Jigure 4.1
TNNATtr .GG-RoLIING RtrsloNsF rN .;F ssE. hc series fnryorents rscd bv r goose o retncvc N egg s r iixed act,on rnern. ()nccIt detects hc sign sdlDulus in thh case, n egg ou6 c ihe esr), he soosc ocs drough the ortirc scr ofnovelnenrs: rrilleltenditsnecktd d the egg, ecr nP, dnd n)llthc ceg back nto thc ncsr ith r slde-to-sidc orion ofirs neck whilc he egg n tuckerl cncafi ns bill.1116 t.nVIII-"1"y .,,i h.ht,,i-
that i tinct and experience oth phy significant oles, olicninteractiry in compl€r war,s o producc drc final beh;rr or.
Innate bebavior does not require learning
Earlv esearch n the 6eld ofanimal behrvn,r ncused n behav-iord patterns hat are ah-avs xhibited mcnlrcrs ofr speciesir rcsponsc o a particrlar stirnuluq hat is, thel'appered tobe instinctivc, or innate, behaviors. Bccause behrvior is olicnstereog?ed appenring n the same way n different ndnidu,als of r qrecics), hese early esearchers rg"ued hrr ir nrst beb$ed on prcsctpaths n rhe nenous systcn.In their .ie$, hcsepaths are structured iolr genetic lucprints and cause nimalsto show cssentinlly he same bchavnrr ron the first time it Gproduced hroughout heir ivcs.These esearchers ased ieiropinions on bchavn,rs uchas cgta etieval bygeese. ecsc ncubate heir eggs n a nest.lfa goosc notices hrt rn egg has been knocked ut of thc nest,it will cxtend ts Deck oward hc cgg, get up, and roll the eggback nto the nest ith a side-to-side orior ofits ncck vhilethc cgg s nrcked beneath ts ,ill (figure 5+.1). Evcn {the eggis rcmoved during etrieval, he goose ornpletcs he behar-ior,rs if driven b1' a program released by dre nitirl sight of the eggEgg retrieral behrvnr is triggered bl, i sign stimulus, therppcarance frneggoutoftie nest. A componert fthe goosetncFous svstem, he innatc rcleasirg mechanism, provides heneural nscructions or the motor progrrn, or ixed action pat-tem, involved r egg rcnieul. \'lore generally, he sign srimulusis r sigu.l n the cnvironDrent hat riggcn a behavior. he ir-nare elersing mechanisnl s he sensorl mechanisn hat detectsthe signal, mcl he ucd action :rftemis hc stcreorvped ct.One interesting aspect of sign srimuli is th:t $ey lrcoften not €ry specific; n sorne simations, vide varietv of',brrcr. ill nggr r rrrrd acrion ,ncrn. ,,r errrrrple. ,*.$-ill attenpt to roll basebrlls nd even lcer cans acLilto theirnesrs. Moreovcr, once rhe objects arc in rhe nest, hc g<rxerecogDizes hrt thev are not eggs nd emoves hernlA similar cramp)e s provided by nrle sticUebicL ish.During the brccdnrg eason, maies dcvcl<,p right red col<,ration on their undcrsides. eritorirl males eact aggrcssirclvto the rpprorch ofolher nales, perfi,rnring m rggressivc lis
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SIGN STIMULUS N sTIcKlEBAcr FISH- {ale sticllebrcls re lery teffitoridl and ggrcssir-ely efen.l hei. ter.it ries dgdinst thefmalcs. tnitori,l nales have ed belLiesi s r result, ed s the sign stnnllns hat eLicits ggrcssive ehavn)r. n l,bo.rtorv studies in shichti sh arc usually resenterl nlr one nodel dt d rirre), he presence f . red stripe determ ncs whc.hcr he rn,le .eact\ ggr essivelv
plal and crer attacking. When researcher iko 'linbergen obsened a malc sticlleback r a laboratory aqurrium displalingaggcssivcly when r red maii truck p.rssed y the rnrdor', hercalizcd hrt the red coloratiol r'.rs the sign stinulus (fignre5,+.2). ubsequent nperirnents erealed hrt m es rculd respond o nany unlishtike odels rs long m the models had aredstripc. Tinbergen '{rcn he 1971 Nobel Prize n nedicine orfl,\ n,,1,'St o fi. $ortThis phenomcnon s taLcn one step urther bv ruhat aretermed supernormal stimuli. Civtn a choice between $osisD stinuli, onc of normal size and the other rnuch arger,manl animrls will respond o the larger of the nvo. 'l'hus,givcn a choice of a normal goose egg and one the size of avolleyball, a goose will atterrrpt o roll the bigger one backto\\hy supernormal timuli exist s not alw|vs lexr. One as- pect o keep n miDd, horc'cr is that n man), ases, upemor-rnalsrinruli o not occur n mturc. Thus, geese ay prefer eggsfie size of volleyballs, ut they never encounter ggs of thatsize. Tt may bc thrt gecse ave evolved o respond o the hrger object so that the,v nill rncnd to eggs, ather than to sm.rller,circuiar ocks. As a result, naturai selection nay have arrcred $e evohrrion f a preference ,r hrgcr objccts. his generalresponse n.r-v ead o urexpected utcomcs n crpcdntcrts, butprobrbll doe+i ofr.rr .. l ,, ' nJlrJatli { bcha'
Edly research in nitul betiyiot mdEized imate behaviors tbat.rc the 6ult of preset patls,. in the nNoB systm md thusare [rely to be sm€ticlly.tntbled.
Behavioral Genetics
The study ofbehrvioral genetics e:tls ith those componentsof bchavior hat are hereditq' governed v genes nd prssedh'om onc genention o the nerlt. A wide vrriety of drtl, liomartificial selecflon xperiments o modern molecular genetics,indicrtcs hat behruioral differences mong ndividuals ftenrcsult orn genetic ifferences.
Rats can be artificially selectedfor learning capacity
A famous eraerimcrt in tie 1940s tudied he rbilitl' of rats|o find their way hrough r rnaze onsisting f rmny blird al-Ieys and only one cxit, where reward of fbod rwrited them.
{Lvw rurcnDlo'.3f.or
Sone rats quickly errncd o zip hrough he maze o the food,nraking ev incorrectturns, ut othcr rats ooknuch longer olearn he correct padr.Researchers lred thc fast carncrs with one another oestablish "maze-lrright" colony, end he do* lerrners withone anorher o establish "mrzc-dull" colony. Oft:pring ineach colonvwere hen tested o scc how quicLly hey earnedthe maze. Ihe offspring of nlaze-bright ats lcarncd cven[rore quicklv than their parents had, and thc offspring ofmaze-dull parents were even poorer at mazc carning. Re-peating this selection for several generations cd to nobehaviorally disrincr qpes of rat s'ith vei diffcrcnt maze-learning abilities fisure s4.3).
,b"tt* 5+ b,t-'i--t bi"t"st lll7
 
9 39 84 114 214Toral Number t E(ors n Negol ling he Maze Fou een Trials)
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fgare 54.3
THE GENETICS r LEAR\ING. The f.srestrlis (rhose r.r na.le rhe ewest rrort in thep.rent.l poprl.tior lvere used o estdblishone population qr.ar, rnd the slo"esfudtsto establjsh he other '"/). ln subsequ€ntgeneradoN, he sane procedure ds used oselecr or fast q,"d) drd sLo\' &4 uts.Clerrh, thc xbilit ro lcxrn the Dr.rze was to so[re de-grcc hcrcdita4,: Furthcrmore, those genes appeared ro lrespecific to this behevior, because he nvo groups of rets diclnot difTer n their abiliq to perfonn other behrviorel trsLs,such as mrning a completeln different kind of rnaze. Thisrcscarch dcmonstratcs horv a study can releal that behaviorhas a hedtrble componcnt.
Human twin studies reveal similaritiesindependent of environment
The role of genetics rn also be seen nr humrns by comparing the behavn)r fidentical rl'ins. denrc twi11s..rrc, s thcirnx c inptics, genetically rlenrical, nd most sets of iclcnticxltwins arc reised n the same enrironnrent, o t is nor possiblcto determiDe hether similarities n behalior esult iom theirgenetic sn laritl or fronr environmental xpericnccs haredas hey gren up (the classic Drture versus-rurturc cbate). rsome cases, onerer, $ins hrve been seprratcd r birrh andraised n different arnilies.A rccert studv of 50 such sets of twins rcvealcd manysimilaritics n personalig', emperirnent, nd evcn cisure inreactilities, e1-en hough he rs'ins ud often )ccn aiscd n verv.JrfrrrenL n$ror ,enr". he.e.ir,.lbfl,i, ,,,Jkarr nr <nelics pl.r-rs role in determining behxvbr even nr hunans, al-,l-orreh he ehr:\ rrI:oflarce.l gfnfri., \ etru. er\ ronr enris still hodv debated.
Some behaviors appear to be controlledby a single gene
The nrzeJearning and denticel $-in' srudies ust describedsuggest hat genes hy e rolc nr behavior, ur recent esearchhrs provided much greatcr etajl on .he generic rsrs fbehav-ior. n both Dfor,p,ft and micc, manv nrurarions ..l .e een as-.oc.rred "irh prn ruhr hrhrr.o lrl,n,rrrulrrie,.rrrt8 '*\'lII-"1,,rr,,,,t t,h,',,,In iuit flies, or cximplc, nldividurls dret possess lrernative allclcs ur a singlc gcnc dif{er grearlv n fieir feedillgbchrvior as anac: Lrme vith one allele mor.e round r grertdcal as hq'e:rt, whereas ndiridu.als idr e altermtne allelenorc hardl,v t all. { r'itle varieq of nrutatjons t other genesarc rorv klom n Droiop,/, drat affecr xlDrosr lery rspect ofcourtship chaYiorThc rays nr r.hich qenetic differences ffect behariorhavc rccn Rlrkcd out for sereral mouse genes. or eurnple,some mice with one muta*rn have rouble emernbering nfor-matnrn errned so da,vs irlier aboul where objecrs rc ocetcd. This dilTerence ppears o result bec.rrse he mutmt rlicc ilr not produce he en4me a crlcJum crluodulin-dcpcndcrt kinase I, which p1at5 n rnportant ole n the unction F ofrhcirippocampus, p,rrt of rhe brrir important br spNtiLrl ei ing(iescribed r chapter 6)\Iodern moleculr biology echniques lli,r. the role ofgenetics beharior o be nvestigated rith crcr greater precision. br erllnrple, male mice geneticallv ngineered o lackrherbilrrv o.rnrhe.i,e rirrIunJe. |.'H,n n{, r',rrts,,,,1er.show nrcreased.rggressive ehrrior.A prrticularlv iscinating bre through occurred r I996,vhen scientists iscorered ne$ genc,lrj4 thxt seems o determine whether emele icc nunurc theirl)ung in parricuhrwavs. Femdes with bothrjB a eles disxbled nili:rllt'irresti- gate heb newborr b|bics, bur then gnore hem, n sr.rrk on-trrst to the crring rnd protcctivc natemal beharior disphyedby nonnrl ftnules (iigxre 5.1.,1).'l'he cause f this inattentivcncss ppcars o result ro[rr chrin rerctior. \ en mothcn ofncv tabies nitiJly inspectthen, inlbnmtion from thcil auditory olf.;rctort', ard t.rctilesenses s tnnsmittc.l ro rhe hpothahnns, where.lbsa le1esare rctivetcd. The rjB alleles prcxluce r particular protein,which n tnm xctivatcs ther enz\rnes nd genes hat alfecttheneural circuitlv rithin the h'J'othrlamus. 1 hese modificationswithin the brdn cruse he firnale ni react nrrtern.rllv ovard
wbat uoatd happet 6 attu tbe lde"thgcneruno\ ratr ute ra".lmlr ^igherlhates reganles oftheir abilitr to kdn

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