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In This Lecture: Lecture 8: ROM & Programmable Logic Devices

In This Lecture: Lecture 8: ROM & Programmable Logic Devices

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Published by: sheheryar on Oct 12, 2009
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E1.2 Digital Electronics 18.17 November 2008
Lecture 8: ROM &Programmable Logic Devices
Dr Pete Sedcole
Department of E&E EngineeringImperial College Londonhttp://cas.ee.ic.ac.uk/~nps/(Floyd 10.1, 10.3 –10.5, 11.1 –11.3)(Tocci12.1, 12.4, 12.5, 12.7, 12.8, 13.1 13.4)
E1.2 Digital Electronics 18.27 November 2008
In this lecture:
Read-only memoryImplementing logic with ROMProgrammable Logic DevicesImplementing logic with PLDsStatic hazards
E1.2 Digital Electronics 18.37 November 2008
Memory terminology
Memory cell:
circuit that stores one bit of information
a group of 8 bits
a group of 
bits (usually 8 –64)
4096 20-bit words = 81920 bits (written 4096x20 or 4k x 20)1 kilo (k) = 1024 = 2
1 Mega (M) = 2
1 Giga (G)= 2
Read operation
Write operation
E1.2 Digital Electronics 18.47 November 2008
E1.2 Digital Electronics 18.57 November 2008
Read-only Memory (ROM)
A ROM cell can store one bit of informationData can be readbut not changed (written) –although some ROMs can be erased –unlike RAM, which can be read and writtenROM is non-volatile –the data is kept even when the power supply to the circuit isturned off  –the data can be read again after the power is turned back on –unlike RAM, which is volatileApplications: –permanent storage of programmes for microprocessors –look-up tables of data –implementing combinational logic
E1.2 Digital Electronics 18.67 November 2008
A ROM device example
0 _ 7
GOUTMUXBIN/1 of 8A0A1A2A5A4A3.+5 Volts
64x1 bit ROMrow selectdecoder 
E1.2 Digital Electronics 18.77 November 2008
64 x 1 bit ROM example: –6 address inputs: half are used for selecting the row, and half for selecting the column –the row-select decoder energises all 8 cells in one row –the column-select MUX chooses just one column signal to passthrough to the output –column lines are normally “pulled high”by resistors –a ROM cell programmed with a 0 pulls the line low
E1.2 Digital Electronics 18.87 November 2008
A ROM cell
A voltage level is stored to represent a 0 or 1If the “row-line”is addressed, the switch closes and the storedvoltage appears on the “column-line”The switch is implemented with a transistor (typically a MOSFET)
0 or 1RowColumn
 S t o r a g  e
E1.2 Digital Electronics 18.97 November 2008
Mask Programmed ROM
In a Mask Programmed ROM (MROM): –The data to be stored in the ROM is fixed at the time of manufacture –The presence or absence of a wire determines whether a cell isprogrammed with a 0 or a 1
05Vrow linecolumnline0stores0stores1
E1.2 Digital Electronics 18.107 November 2008
Programmable ROMs
MROM are inflexible –the data are fixed when the chips arefabricatedProgrammable ROMs (PROMs) can be programmed after manufacture –A fuse is used instead of a wire link –Certain types of fuses can be reset under UV lightElectrical Erasable PROMs(EEPROMs) use another transistor instead of a fuse
0row line0columnline
PROM cellEEPROM cell
data stored in agate capacitance
E1.2 Digital Electronics 18.117 November 2008
Different ROM technologies
E1.2 Digital Electronics 18.127 November 2008
Implementing logic with ROM
A 2
x m ROM has n inputs (the address) and m outputsE.g.: 2
x 6This can be used to implement logic functions directly –connect the input signals to the address lines –programmethe ROM data with the truth table
0101010001000000Data (hex)0706050403020100Addr(hex)

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