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441_05_fugacity

# 441_05_fugacity

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02/27/2014

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1
Chapter 5 - Chemical Potential and Fugacity
Gibbs Energy and Temperature Gibbs Energy and Pressure Chemical Potential Real Gases - Fugacity

2
Variation of G with T
The variation of Gibbs energy with tempera-ture is determined by the entropy.
(

G/

T)
p
= -S
The most stable phase is the one with the lowest Gibbs energy.
This also has the lowest chemical potential, as we shall see.
Solid

3
Variation of G with
p

The variation of Gibbs energy with pressure is determined by the volume.
(

G/

p
)
T
= V
In integral form, G(
p
) - G(
p
o
) =
I
Vdp
[limits:
p
o
to p]

For a perfect gas, use V = nRT/
p
to get
G(
p
) = G(
p
o
) + nRT ln (
p/p
o
)
For liquids and solids, use
k
= -(1/V) (
M
V/
M
p
)
T
, and consider
k
to be constant; get ln[V(
p
)/V(
p
o
)
] =-
k
D
p
or V
(p
) = V
(p
o
)exp[-
k
D
p
]. Two approx.:
D
p

p for
p
>>
p
o
and exp[-
k
p
]
(1-
k
p)
Y

V(
p
)
V(
p
o
)[1-
k
p
]
G-G
o
=-V
o
-
o
-k/
2
2
-
o2