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Hand and Heart.

Hand and Heart.

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Published by GLENN DALE PEASE
BY JAMES MARTINEAU.

John xiv. 23.

if a man loye me, he will keep my" words ; and my father
will love him, and we will come unto him, and make our
abode with him.
BY JAMES MARTINEAU.

John xiv. 23.

if a man loye me, he will keep my" words ; and my father
will love him, and we will come unto him, and make our
abode with him.

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Published by: GLENN DALE PEASE on Feb 27, 2014
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HAND AND HEART. BY JAMES MARTINEAU. John xiv. 23. if a man loye me, he will keep my" words ; and my father will love him, and we will come unto him, and make our abode with him. There is no point in theoretical morality more difficult to determine (if we may judge from the disputes of philosophers), than the comparative worth and mutual relations of good affections and good actions. Ought it to be the direct and primary aim of the teacher of duty to produce a harvest of be-neficent deeds ? or to impart clear perceptions and prompt sensibility of conscience in relation to right and wrong ? If the former, his instructions will present an inventory and careful valuation of all possible ' voluntary acts ; ' and his exhortations be addressed to the hopes and fears, to the prudential apprehensions of good and evil, which operate im-mediately upon the will. If the latter, he will meddle little with cases of casuistry, or problems which exhibit duty as an object of doubt; will define and illuminate the secret image of right that
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dwells within every mind ; and present as incentives those models of high faith and disinterested virtue which kindle the reverence of the heart. In this 200 HAND AND HEART. country, especially among those who have been most anxious to 'enlighten' its religion, the predominant attention has been given to external morality. The practical temper of the English, impatient of loud profession and sanctimonious inconsistency, reason-ably enough cried out for '-fruits Philosophy caught this spirit, and embodied it in a system of no small pretensions. Seeing that fine sentiments are worth-less without good deeds, the masters of this school have decided, that the affections have no excellence except as instruments for producing action ; that, intrinsically, they are all alike, Avithout any distinc-tion of good or bad ; that moral qualities primarily attach merely to practice, derivatively only to the mental tendencies towards practice, and in any case are constiliited by the effects of conduct in producing enjoyment or pain; that the moralist has no concern with the motives of an agent, provided he does that
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which is useful ; that the only measure of virtue, in short, is the amount of pleasure it creates. This system has been embraced and is still held by many Christians, chiefly among the churches within the sphere of Dr. Priestley's influence. It is expounded, in a form full of inconsistency and com-promise, by Dr. Paley, in a work whose popularity appears to me rather a discredit to England than an honor to him ; and though it has been a general favorite with irreligious moralists, and appears in natural reaction from the enthusiasm of the most earnest pietists, it has seldom been considered hostile to Christianity itself. This is no fit occasion for discussing its philosophical pretensions; and were it not for the extent and nature of its practical in-fluence, it might be abandoned to the Academic HAND AND HEAKT. 201 Lecture-room, where the rigorous methods of thought necessary for its examination would not be mis-placed. But there is one particular view of it which may naturally enough be presented here. Its char-
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