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Euskal Ekonomia Frankismo Garaian. 1950-60

Euskal Ekonomia Frankismo Garaian. 1950-60

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Published by EKAI Center
Euskal Ekonomia Frankismo Garaian. 1950-60
Euskal Ekonomia Frankismo Garaian. 1950-60

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Published by: EKAI Center on Feb 27, 2014
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06/24/2014

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 Ms m Xfrd`ah Ympbr, `t lfbsa¼t rbjnbct may `ast`tut`famn pfs`t`fa fr fp`a`fa ab`tebr fj BDM@ Cbatbr, afr fj `ts spfasfrs fr suppfrt`ah bat`t`bs BDM@ Cbatbr sbbds tf lf ous`abss w`te cfgpma`bs fr hfbragbats cfbrbl `a `ts rbpfrts! "bmlbrs sefunl ob mwmrb temt wb gmy emb m cfajn`ct fj `atbrbst temt cfunl mjjbct teb fo#bct``ty fj te`s rbpfrt! @abstfrs sefunl cfas`lbr te`s rbpfrt ms fany m s`ahnb jmctfr `a gmd`ah teb`r `abstgbat lbc`s`fa!
 
HM_M@M @AAFZM\@FA CBA\B_, HF@_R =,M? GFAL_MHFA \BN; 0<3?29=9< Z@\F_@M-HMS\B@[ :30:<=<28 NBDB@\@F :8289=852 LR_MAHF :555=02?9 B-GM@N; `ajfIbdm`cbatbr.bu jmcboffd.cfg/BDM@Cbatrb scr`ol.cfg/BDM@Cbatbr
 
Xfrd`ah Ympbr
 
?9=3df mzmrfm
 
Busdmn Bdfafg`m Jrmad`sgf Hmrm`ma =029-:9
Omsqub Bcfafgy lur`ah \eb Jrmacf _bh`gb =029-:9 Nm Bcfafgm !mscm lurma"b bn Jrmaqu`sgf =029-:9
@tz`mr Mnobrl`
 
 
Ms m Xfrd`ah Ympbr, `t lfbsa¼t rbjnbct may `ast`tut`famn pfs`t`fa fr fp`a`fa ab`tebr fj BDM@ Cbatbr, afr fj `ts spfasfrs fr suppfrt`ah bat`t`bs BDM@ Cbatbr sbbds tf lf ous`abss w`te cfgpma`bs fr hfbragbats cfbrbl `a `ts rbpfrts! "bmlbrs sefunl ob mwmrb temt wb gmy emb m cfajn`ct fj `atbrbst temt cfunl mjjbct teb fo#bct``ty fj te`s rbpfrt! @abstfrs sefunl cfas`lbr te`s rbpfrt ms fany m s`ahnb jmctfr `a gmd`ah teb`r `abstgbat lbc`s`fa!
 
HM_M@M @AAFZM\@FA CBA\B_, HF@_R =,M? GFAL_MHFA \BN; 0<3?29=9< Z@\F_@M-HMS\B@[ :30:<=<28 NBDB@\@F :8289=852 LR_MAHF :555=02?9 B-GM@N; `ajfIbdm`cbatbr.bu jmcboffd.cfg/BDM@Cbatrb scr`ol.cfg/BDM@Cbatbr
 
Busdmn Bdfafg`m Jrmad`sgf Hmrm`ma =029-:9
=.
 Murrbdf urtbbtma gftbntzba ems`m zba Jrmacfrba l`dtmlurmrbd`df `sfnmgbalum, emgmrdmlm efabtma brmomt mgm`tzba lm. Hbrtmbrm efabd, Bspm`a`mdf bdfafg`mrbatzmt gumrr` mrrmatz`tsum supfsmtu zuba btm efrrbaobstbz, busdmn bdfafg`mrbatzmt brb mrf obrr` omtba ems`brm `zma zba.
?.
 Mnlmdbtm om`am bz zba omt-omtbma btfrr`. Brrb`gbamd, mutmrd`ma btm `atbrobatz`fa`sgfma f`amrr`tzba zuba pfn`t`dm bdfafg`dfm obrb efrrbtma utz` zuba, Bfadfrtmsuabrmdf !nmam btm Bdfafg`mrba Matfnmdbtm "brr`mrba #bdrbtum dmnbrmtu mrtb $=020%.
3.
 Mutmrd`mr` bustb efrrbd dmapft`d btfr z`tbdbba dfapbtbatz`m gumtzba zuba. &batzu efrrbtma, bspm`a`mr gbrdmtum brbgu `t'` btm msdbm o`nmdmtu zba `alustr`m (mrlubrm uzt`batzmt btm busdmn `alustr`md bzfe`df bfbrm efa` btbd`am mtbrmtzba  (md`a zuba.
<.
 =02)ma Bspm`a`md btm Bstmtu "mtubd s`amtutmdf mdfrl`fba falfr`fz, l`ru-nmuatzm btm lb*batsm mrnfma bndmrnmam mlfstu z`rba. Bspm`a`mrm `r`ts` z`rba bn`dmm`md omn`fzdfmd `zma z`rba brrmz`famgbalum bzmomtzbdf, gbrdmtu obntzm lbsb`tba emstbdf btm prbz`fmd nbebabafz brrm ems` zbabt`d bfadfrtzbdf. Jrmacfd mdfrl`f emub` btbd`a emal`m mtbrm z`ba, brrb`gbamrba amz`fmrtbdf famrpbamrba *rfmtzmt brmo`n` om`tz`tuba obrb `zmbrm l`dtmtfr`mnmr` udf b`a mob.
2.
 +mapft`d btfrr`tmdf l`ru-nmuatzbd btm bspfrtmz`fba emzdualbmd dmapfdf lb*`z`tmrba bfbrm efobtu zutba btm efabd mudbrm bgma zuba nbebam` btm babr`mrba efra`duatzm afrgmntzbdf btm bd`pf-falmsuaba `apfrtmz`fba emzdualb `rmuadfr omtbd`a emstbdf. Hffma `zma obemr lm efr`bd `zma z`rbnm murrbdf emgmrdmlma zbemr `alustr`md `zma z`tuba bdf`zpba-mrmzfba gu`am.
:.
 Burfpmdf bdfafg`bd . ualu Hbrrm fstbma btm obrrbrm`d`tzb-prfzbsumrba brm`abz `zma zutba emzdualb gm`nm emal`m, Bspm`a`mdf bspfrtmz`fb` obrrbd`tbdf mudbrm bgma z`ba. "mn`zdf afrgmn`zmz`f emu `zma zba z`ur msdf falfrbaf urtbbtma bgma zba emzdualb bdfafg`dfmrba brm`nb amus`m.
8.
Hbrrm &`o`nmrba murrbdf gm`nm `alustr`mnm obrrbsdurmtzbm nfrtu zba. mz`fmrtbdf famrpbamrbd`a omtbrm btm =022bma mz`f "mtuba Bndmrtbma smrtu falfrba, brrb`gbamd afnmom`tbdf omrab-bfadfrtmsuam nfrtu zuba emgmrdmlm efabtma.
5.
 Bdfafg`mr` lmfd`fabz, =02=t`d murrbrm nma`nb-gu`gbalumd brrbo`al`dmz`f-bstrmtb`m mrmtu zuba. Hmtmzdm sfz`mnmrba `duspb`t`d, emgmrdmlm efabtmdf nbeba ofst urtbmd ame`df nmsm`md `zma z`rba l`dtmlurmrbatzmt. "m`am bspm`a`mr bdfafg`m brblu mutmrd`dfmrbd`a `tftm zbfba btm =02:t`d murrbrm, nma-omnl`atzba `auruma bsdmbrmd brf btm umr`mfmd `zma z`rba.
0.
 Busdmn bdfafg`mr` brrbpmrmtuz, =022bma "`zdm`md Busdmn /brr`df "mrab !rfludtu Hfrl`abrm $"!H% b`tba zuba bdmrpbam 2,9dfm zba o`tmrtbma, H`puzdfmrbam )?,39 btm Mrmomrbam <,9dfm zba
=
.
=9.
 Brrb`gbamd omobstutmdf zbaom`t fpbrmz`fb` bsdbr H`puzdfmdf `alustr`m gbtmnur`df mr`am
=
 Hfaznbz !frt`nnm ., 
 Mspbctfs lb nm `alustr`mn`zmc`óa lbn Ymçs Zmscf
8, B+55M& 0-=9.
 
 
Ms m Xfrd`ah Ympbr, `t lfbsa¼t rbjnbct may `ast`tut`famn pfs`t`fa fr fp`a`fa ab`tebr fj BDM@ Cbatbr, afr fj `ts spfasfrs fr suppfrt`ah bat`t`bs BDM@ Cbatbr sbbds tf lf ous`abss w`te cfgpma`bs fr hfbragbats cfbrbl `a `ts rbpfrts! "bmlbrs sefunl ob mwmrb temt wb gmy emb m cfajn`ct fj `atbrbst temt cfunl mjjbct teb fo#bct``ty fj te`s rbpfrt! @abstfrs sefunl cfas`lbr te`s rbpfrt ms fany m s`ahnb jmctfr `a gmd`ah teb`r `abstgbat lbc`s`fa!
 
HM_M@M @AAFZM\@FA CBA\B_, HF@_R =,M? GFAL_MHFA \BN; 0<3?29=9< Z@\F_@M-HMS\B@[ :30:<=<28 NBDB@\@F :8289=852 LR_MAHF :555=02?9 B-GM@N; `ajfIbdm`cbatbr.bu jmcboffd.cfg/BDM@Cbatrb scr`ol.cfg/BDM@Cbatbr
 
Busdmn Bdfafg`m Jrmad`sgf Hmrm`ma =029-:9 dmapfdf gbrdmtubtmrm zmomntzba ems` zba btm bspfrtmz`fba `duspb`t`d =029-2< urtbmd `atbrbs emal`dfmd `zma z`rba. fstbdf gmd`amd btm mrgm`atzm `zma z`rba bspfrtmz`frm o`lbrmtutmdf (mrlubrm amus`md. 5alfrba btfrr`df l`rm ourl`alb`-fsmm`md, gmd`am-brrbg`atmd, obstbnmdf brrbg`atmd, o`z`dnbtmd, btmo. =02<ma, )<9,0 g`nf` ptm-df omn`fm `zma zutba dmapf-smngbatbd. =02?ma btbam `zma zba btm 302 g`nf` ptm-dfm `zma zba dmapfrm smnlutmdfmrba omn`fm
3
.
==.
 =02?t`d murrbrm, "`zdm`df s`lbrur`md btm fatz`fnbd (msfdf lutb ountzmlm.
Nby lb Yrftbcc`óa y _bafvmc`óa lb nm Jnftm Gbrcmatb
 lbnmdfmr` bsdbr $=02:%, drbl`tumd $`tsmsfatz`mrba omn`fmrba ?9 mrtbdfmd% bgma z`zd`btba fatz`fnb` btm frluma ems` z`rba "`zdm`df fatz`fnbd $m;`brm 4`zcm>am, Busdmnluam, 7mlmum, 1u`z lb 4bnmscf, urubtm, btmo.% prfludz`fm emal`tzba, bsdmbrmd brb emal`tu b`a om`tz`rba, emr`d btm =0:9df emgmrdmlmrba ems`brma obrr`z obebrm b`a zutba mrtb
)
.
=?.
 Bfadfrtmsuabrmdf !nmam gmrt'ma (mrr` mrtb, busdmn `alustr`mrba bzmumrr` amus`md bdf`zpba bsdmsm, `aobrts`fba mpmntmsuam btm `a*nmz`fm z`rba. 6`lbrur`mrba bdf`zpbam gumtum zba babr`m btm nbebam`bz falf efra`tzbdf zbulba zm`ntmsuabamt`d btm sbdtfrbmrba obrmrba b`turm gfafpfn`stm zbnmdf. md`am-brrbg`atmrba
3
 Hfaznbz !frt`nnm ., 5p. 7`t.
)
 ettpIOOO.busdmrm.busdml`.abtr20-nurbl`rbscfatba`lfsmrt`cunfc9==buCl9==99=9==99=.etgn 
bdf`zpbam, obrr`z, sbalftu b`a zba emgmr urtb emubtma.
=3.
 md`abr`mrba `apfrtmz`fmrbatzmt zbulba trmomd gftbnmf bzmomtu z`rba btm efabd busdmn bdfafg`mrba dmsuma mrmzfmd bdmrr` z`zd`fa zbaom`t `alustr`m sbdtfrbr` $H`puzdfmdf pmpbrmrba `alustr`mr` bsmtbrmdf%. Msdftma, bsdmr`mrbd`a zbr`dus`m om`af, bdf`zpbabma brmo`ntzba zba tbdafnf`mrbd`a nftur`d zbulba zm`ntmsua emubd.
=<.
 Bfbrm efabd mtzbrr`ma `alustr`m-pmtbatbmd brfstbrm ountzmtu z`tuba `alustr`mr` msdf. !mtbatb emubd`a bsduma, Bspm`a`mdf gbrdmturmdf prfludtu obrr`ba bdf`zpbamr` bd`a z`tzm`fa. /mu `zma zba =029. emgmrdmlma sfrtutmdf (mrlubrm `alustr`mn msdfrba (mtfrr`m Busdml`a.
=2.
 &baom`t bspmrrutma, (mrlubrm obrr`md sustmtzbdf fztfpf ourfdrmt`df btm pfn`t`dfmd m`al`tzbm obabtmdf brrfadm o`eurtu zba. "be`a fztfpfm m`al`tu bzdbrf, gbrdmtumd bdf`ztba zba uzt`m brrmz obrbmamtzbdf omn`mo`lbm zuba, ame`z btm dmn`tmtb ut'`dfm `zma blf prbz`f mntuma smnlu ame` `zma.
=:.
 =02:ma mrrmatz` emal`df *bafgbafm (mrr` zba mo`ma Mrrmsmtba, bspbr`batz`m dffpbrmt`ofm mnb`m, fsb mr`m Mr`zgbal`mrr`btm mpm`zmd ountzmtutm. Bdfafg`m emztba mr` zba mrm` emrtma *`nfsf*`m bzobrl`am zuba gu`gbalum sfrtu zba, LH51-ba bsdut`d nbeba`d. Hbrfrm dffpbrmt`om be`mf sfrtu z`rbaI Juacfr, Mrrmsmtb btm 6ma fsb +fatsugf +ffpbrmt`om, frm`a Brfsd` lbam. +ffpbrmt`om efr`bd obrgmtu zutba =020ma ma +`lb Murrbzd` +ut'm $frm`a Busdml`df +ut'm lbam% *`amatzm btm drbl`tu brmdualbmrba sfrrbrm. u`gbalu efrrba brm`abz, bdfafg`m sfz`mnbma f`amrr`tutmdf b`turm obrbz`m sfrtu zba #bomdf bsdumnlb fsfma. 5alfrbaf (mrlubrm-mlmrrbtma sustmtu z`tuztba em`aomt `alustr`mI mnlmdbtmd,

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