size and recalculate to see
bending stress is less than the allowable stress level value. There are many other steps
shown, such as the calculation
the Transient Bending
begin to understand
complicated the calculation process is for sizing and spacing
stiffeners. There are two key elements in the formulas that have a direct affect upon insulation and lagging systems.
are stiffener spacing and water gauge pressure [refer to Eq. (1) and (2)]. Today, all such calculations are being done
a computer. Years ago those doing the calibrations considered the insulation and lagging systems
determining their stiffener sizing and spacing.
is not the case today.
more than fifteen years ago that the
for the water gauge pressure for a flue, duct,
casing system was around seventeen inches. The early designers
flue and duct considered the insulation application because their water gauge pressure was
is required today.
The higher the water gauge-number
the bigger the stiffeners.
YESTERDAYS WATER GAUGE PRESSURES
The stiffener sizing
yesterday was based
a much lower water gauge pressure (around 17 inches) and was spaced normally at
spacing. This spacing allowed the insulation to
placed between the stiffeners without having to cut to fit. This typical stiffener spacing was
a coincidence as
matched the average width
a mineral wool board insulation
24 , 36 ,
wide. Due to the shorter stiffener heights and closer spacing
the stiffeners it was
to establish guidelines for stiffener heights and insulation design. Here
is one such guideline that I have used and recommended to flue designers for hot systems operating above 350 degrees F:
Stiffener and Insulation Guideline
External stiffeners should all
rectangular surface as required to meet stiffener span designs. External stiffener height should all, wherever possible,
greater than 2
insulation thickness up to a
7 . External stiffener spacing should, wherever possible,
spaced either 24 , 36, 48 to
accommodate economical insulation
the specified insulation thickness is within
equaling the total stiffener height than the insulation thickness should
the stiffener with
least W' thick
the external stiffeners are spaced six feet
more apart, the insulation should
over these stiffeners.
the external stiffener height is greater than 7 , a 22 gauge
the external stiffeners to support the insulation. Taking that same typical horizontal flue
duct plate as described earlier and using the above Stiffener and Insulation Guidelines [See
we can apply determine the proper method
discussion sake, let us assume that
on yesterdays water gauge
17 , the external stiffener height would
greater then 5 high on 24 centers and the
insulation thickness calculated to be 5 thick*.
The insulation thickness was based on using a
pound density mineral wool board meeting
a surface temperature
F with an ambient air
external wind velocity
and using an emissivity value
Stiffener and Insulation Guidelines
the insulation thickness would
so as to bury all the stiffeners.