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Oncology Nursing (Word) bulleted for Nsg Reviewees

Oncology Nursing (Word) bulleted for Nsg Reviewees

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Published by switlipz
this i only downloaded in Scribd but I then morphed it fro MS Powerpoint to MS Word..
this i only downloaded in Scribd but I then morphed it fro MS Powerpoint to MS Word..

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Published by: switlipz on Oct 13, 2009
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07/16/2013

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ONCOLOGY NURSING
Oncology Nursing
Branch of medicinethat deals with thestudy, detection,treatment andmanagement of cancer and neoplasiaRoot Words
Neo- new
Plasia- growth
Plasm- substance
 Trophy- size
Oma- tumor
A- none
Ana- lack
Hyper- excessive
Meta- change
Dys- bad, derangedCELL CHANGES
1. Atrophy
2. Hypertrophy
3. Hyperplasia
4. Metaplasia
5. Dysplasia
6. Anaplasia
7. NeoplasiaETIOLOGY:MULTIFACTORIAL
GENETIC FACTORS
SMOKING
DIETARY: NITRATES(NITROSAMINES),BENZOPYRENE
HORMONAL /CHEMICAL AGENTS
BIOLOGIC AGENTS:MOLDS, VIRUSES &BACTERIA
OTHERSCharacteristics of Neoplasia-Uncontrolled growth of Abnormal cells
1. Benign
2. Malignant3. BorderlineCharacteristics of NeoplasiaBENIGN
Well-differentiated
Slow growth
Encapsulated
Non-invasive
Does NOTmetastasizeCharacteristics of NeoplasiaMALIGNANT
Undifferentiated
Erratic andUncontrolled Growth
Expansive andInvasive
Secretes abnormalproteins
METASTASIZESReasons for SuccessfulMetastasis
1. cancer cellsrelease ENZYMES toescape from thelymphatic and bloodvessels
2. secondary siteshould providenourishment tocancer cells
3. secondary siteshould haveadequate bloodsupplyNomenclature of Neoplasia Tumor is named accordingto:1.Parenchyma
Hepatoma- liver
Osteoma- bone
Myoma- muscle Tumor is named accordingto:2. Pattern and Structure,either GROSS orMICROSCOPIC
Fluid-filled
à
CYST
Glandular
à
ADENO
Finger-like
à
PAPILLO
Stalk
à
POLYP Tumor is named accordingto:3. Embryonic origin
Ectoderm ( usuallygives rise toepithelium)
Endoderm (usuallygives rise to glands)
Mesoderm (usuallygives rise toConnective tissues)BENIGN TUMORSSuffix- “OMA” is used
Adipose tissue-LipOMA
Bone- osteOMA
Muscle- myOMA
Blood vessels-angiOMA
Fibrous tissue-fibrOMAMALIGNANT TUMORNamed according toembryonic cell origin1. Ectodermal, Endodermal,Glandular, Epithelial
Use the suffix-“CARCINOMA”
PancreaticAdenoCarcinoma
 
Squamous cellCarcinomaNamed according toembryonic cell origin2. Mesodermal, connectivetissue originUse the suffix “SARCOMA
FibroSarcoma
Myosarcoma
AngioSarcoma“PASAWAY“OMA” but Malignant
 – 
HepatOMA,lymphOMA,gliOMA,melanOMA2. THREE germ layers
 – 
“TERATOMA”3. Non-neoplastic but“OMA”
 – 
HEMATOMACANCER NURSINGReview of Normal Cell Cycle3types of cells1. PERMANENT cells- out of the cell cycle
 – 
Neurons,cardiac musclecell2. STABLE cells-Dormant/Resting (G0)
 – 
Liver, kidney3. LABILE cells-continuously dividing
 – 
GIT cells, Skin,endometrium ,Blood cellsCell CycleG0------------------G1
à
S
à
G2
à
M
G0- Dormant orresting
G1- normal cellactivities
S- DNA Synthesis
G2- pre-mitotic,synthesis of proteinsfor cellular division
M- Mitotic phase (I-P-M-A-T)
Proposed Molecularcause of CANCER:
Change in the DNAstructure
à
alteredDNA function
à
Cellular aberration
à
cellular death
à
neoplastic changeGenes in the DNA- “proto-oncogene” And “anti-oncogeneEtiology of cancer1. PHYSICAL AGENTS
Radiation
Exposure to irritants
Exposure to sunlightEtiology of cancer2. CHEMICAL AGENTS
Smoking
Dietary ingredients
Drugs. Genetics and FamilyHistory
Colon Cancer
Premenopausalbreast cancer. Dietary Habits
Low-Fiber
High-fat
Processed foods
alcohol. Viruses and Bacteria
DNA viruses- HepaB,Herpes, EBV, CMV,Papilloma Virus
RNA Viruses- HIV,HTCLV
Bacterium- H. pylori
6. Hormonal agents
DES-diethylstilbestrol
OCP especiallyestrogen. Immune Disease
AIDSCARCINOGENSIS
Malignanttransformation
I
à
P
à
P
Initiation
Promotion
ProgressionCARCINOGENSISINITIATION
Carcinogens alter theDNA of the cell
Cell will either die ormutatePROMOTION
Repeated exposureto carcinogens
Abnormal gene willexpress
Latent periodCARCINOGENSISPROGRESSION
Irreversible period
Cells undergoNEOPLASTICtransformation thenmalignancySpread of Cancer
1. LYMPHATIC
Mostcommon
2. HEMATOGENOUS
 – 
Blood-borne,commonly toLiver andLungs
3. DIRECT SPREAD
 – 
Seeding of tumorsBody Defenses Against TUMOR
1. T cell System/Cellular Immunity
 – 
Cytotoxic Tcells kill tumorcells
2. B cell System/Humoral immunity
 – 
B cells canproduceantibody
3. Phagocytic cells
 – 
Macrophagescan engulf cancer celldebrisCancer Diagnosis
1. BIOPSY
 – 
 The mostdefinitive
2. CT, MRI
3. Tumor MarkersCancer Grading The degree of DIFFERENTIATION
Grade 1- Low grade
Grade 4- high gradeCancer Staging1. Uses the T-N-M stagingsystem
 T- tumor
N- Node
M- Metastasis2. Stage 1 to Stage 4GENERAL MEDICALMANAGEMENT
 
1. Surgery- cure,control, palliate
2. Chemotherapy
3. Radiation therapy
4. Immunotherapy
5. Bone Marrow TransplantGENERAL Promotive andPreventive NursingManagement
1. LifestyleModification
2. Nutritionalmanagement
3. Screening
4. Early detectionSCREENING
1. Male and female-Occult Blood, CXR,and DRE
2. Female- SBE, CBE,Mammography andPap’s Smear
3. Male- DRE forprostate, Testicularself-examNursing AssessmentUtilize the 7 WarningSignalsCAUTION
C- Change inbowel/bladder habits
A- A sore that doesnot heal
U- Unusual bleeding
 T- Thickening orlump in the breast
I- Indigestion
O- Obvious change inwarts
N- Nagging coughand hoarsenessNursing Assessment
Weight loss
Frequent infection
Skin problems
Pain
Hair Loss
Fatigue
Disturbance in bodyimage/ depressionNursing InterventionMAINTAIN TISSUEINTEGRITY
Handle skin gently
Do NOT rub affectedarea
Lotion may beapplied
Wash skin only withmoisturizing soapand waterMANAGEMENT OFSTOMATITIS
Use soft-bristledtoothbrush
Oral rinses withsaline gargles/ tapwater
Avoid ALCOHOL-based rinsesMANAGEMENT OFALOPECIAAlopecia beginswithin 2 weeks of therapy
Regrowth within 8weeks of termination
Encourage to acquirewig before hair lossoccurs
Encourage use of attractive scarvesand hats
Provide informationthat hair loss istemporary BUTanticipate change intexture and colorPROMOTE NUTRITION
Serve food in ways tomake it appealing
Consider patient’spreferences
Provide smallfrequent meals
Avoid giving fluidswhile eating
Oral hygiene PRIORto mealtime
Vitamin supplementsRELIEVE PAIN
Mild pain- NSAIDSModerate pain- Weakopioids
Severe pain-Morphine
Administeranalgesics round theclock with additionaldose forbreakthrough painDECREASE FATIGUE
Plan daily activitiesto allow alternatingrest periods
Light exercise isencouraged
Small frequent mealsIMPROVE BODYIMAGE
 Therapeuticcommunication isessential
Encourageindependence in self-care and decisionmaking
Offer cosmeticmaterial like make-up and wigsASSIST IN THEGRIEVING PROCESS
Some cancers arecurable
Grieving can be dueto loss of health,income, sexuality,and body image
Answer and clarifyinformation aboutcancer andtreatment options
Identify resourcepeople
Refer to supportgroupsMANAGECOMPLICATION:INFECTION
Fever is the mostimportant sign
Administerprescribed antibioticsX 2weeks

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