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PE3011 English Language Studies and Teaching 1 Grammar Lecture 11

PE3011 English Language Studies and Teaching 1 Grammar Lecture 11

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Published by: twy113 on Oct 13, 2009
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PE3011 English Language Studies and Teaching 1Grammar Lecture 11 : Punctuation
(Reading : Greenbaum, ch. 7)
two main functions :1.separating successive units (phrases, clauses,sentences, insertions, etc.)2.Specification of language function (apostrophes,hyphens)What punctuation types (marked by symbols) can youthink of?
I.Types of punctuationI.1 When are commas used?
 between items in a list
around inserted material
 before a quotation
 between coordinated or subordinated clauses
I.2When are semicolons used?
indicate the end of one sentence when two sentencesare so closely related that they are combined into one.
Use not as specific as other punctuation marks
 Not suggested for teaching
e.g.She is a superb administrator; everybody knows that.He likes babies very much; he even wants to bring onehome.
The first letter of the first word after the semicolon isin the lower case.
They can also be used in place of a comma to separateitems in a list, particularly when the items are long or when they have commas within them.e.g.Dying patients especially cannot make decisions aboutthe end of a life: about whether or not to enter a hospitalor to have surgery; about where and with whom to spendtheir remaining time; about how to bring their affairs to aclose and take leave.The Quincy Market is a popular tourist attraction inBoston; the WhiteHouse, in Washington D.C.; and thestatue of Liberty, in New York City.
I.3When are colons used?
to introduce explanatory and listed items.
Sometimes when an independent clause is used after acolon, it is introduced with a capital letter. Some people prefer a capital, but others do not.e.g.Dying patients especially cannot make decisions aboutthe end of life: about whether or not to enter ahospital to have a surgery....
The results teach a lesson that isn't surprising: Workersgenerally feel better and do a better job when they are inan attractive environment.
Colons can also be used to introduce a quotation if acomplete clause precedes the quotation. [not commonthough]e.g.It is not until I move closer that I catch the words to themelody: "Get out of here. Get out of here."
I.4When are dashes and parentheses used?
to signal an interruption in a sentence. They serve toset off additional information, to present a kind of "aside". Often they present
explanations, examples,and comments
.e.g.Consider a frontier mining town where 100 miners areemployed in the town's only basic industry - goldmining.Another kind of mistruth - the "white lie" - is both a popular and often an acceptable type of communication.White lies are defined (at least by those who tell them)as being unmalicious.
I.5When are sentence fragments used (i.e.,acceptable)?

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