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Curs Tehnologii Web

Curs Tehnologii Web

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Published by coriana13
Un curs care introduce mai multe tehnologii web utilizate in prezent (hmtl, css, xml, java, ajax, jsp, etc)
Un curs care introduce mai multe tehnologii web utilizate in prezent (hmtl, css, xml, java, ajax, jsp, etc)

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Published by: coriana13 on Oct 13, 2009
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11/23/2012

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1 - INTRODUCTION
1 - INTRODUCTION
1.1 communication protocols
A
communication protocol
is a set of rules that the end points in a telecom link use when theycommunicate.A protocol is specified in an industry or international standard. All internet related protocols aredefined within the frame of IETF (
Internet
 
Engineering
 
Task
 
Force
) via a mechanism calledRFC (
Request
 
For 
 
Comments
).Each (potential) protocol is defined by such a document. For a comprehensive list of all theRFCs, check the official sitewww.ietf.org(which present the RFCs in .txt format) or www.cis.ohio- state.edu/cgi-bin/rfc (which presents the RFCs in .html format, with up to date links embedded inthe documents).
1.2 the OSI model
OSI stands for 
Open System Interconnection
, anISO(International Standard Organization)standardfor worldwide communications that defines a structured framework for implementingprotocolsin seven layers. Control is passed from one layer to the next, starting at the applicationlayer at the source node, proceeding to the lower layers, over the links to the next node and backup the hierarchy until the destination node is reached. The structure of the message which is theobject of this exchange gets modified along the way, each step down into the layer hierarchyadding a new wrapper around the existing message (usually, consisting of a protocol specificheader), while each step up removes the wrapper specific to the layer below.The seven layers in the OSI model are:Nr.LayerDescription Protocol examples1ApplicationSupports application and end useprocesses. Provides applicationservices for file transfers, e-mail andother network software services.DHCP, DNS, FTP, Gopher,HTTP, IMAP4, POP3, SMTP,SNMP, TELNET, TSL (SSL),SOAP2PresentationTranslates data from application tonetwork format and vice-versa. Mayalso provide compression andencryption services.APF, ICA, LPP, NCP, NDR,XDR, X.25 PAD3SessionSets up, manages and terminatesconnections between communicationpartners. It handles session andconnection coordination.ASP, NetBIOS, PAP, PPTP,RPC, SMPP, SSH, SDP4TransportProvides data transfer between the endpoints of the communication partnersand is responsible for error recoveryand flow control.DCCP, SCTP, TCP, UDP,WTLS, WTP, XTP
1
 
1 - INTRODUCTION
5NetworkResponsible for source to destinationdelivery of packages, including routingthrough intermediate nodes. Providesquality of service and error control.DDP, ICMP, IPSec, IPv4,IPv6, IPX, RIP6Data LinkTransfers data between adjacentnetwork nodes and handles errorsoccurred at the physical levelARCnet, ATM, CDP,Ethernet, Frame Relay,HDLC, Token Ring7PhysicalTranslates communication requestsfrom the data link layer intotransmissions and receptions of electronic signals at hardware level.10BASE-T, DSL, Firewire,GSM, ISDN, SONET/SDH,V.92For a detailed description of these layers, check the site:http://www.geocities.com/SiliconValley/Monitor/3131/ne/osimodel.html .
1.3 sockets - basics
A
socket
is a logical entity which describes the end point(s) of a communication link betweentwo IP entities (entities which implement the Internet Protocol). Sockets are identified by the IPaddress and the port number. Port numbers range from 0 to 65535 (2^16 – 1) and are split into 3categories:1.
well known ports
- ranging from 0 to 1023 – these ports are under the control of IANA(Internet Assigned Number Authority), a selective list is shown in the table below:Port numberUDP protocolTCP protocolOthe1TCPMUX5Remote Job Entry (RJE)7Echo15NETSTAT20FTP - data21FTP control22Secure Shell23Telnet25Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP)41Graphics42ARPA Host Name Server ProtocolWINS43WHOIS53Domain Name System (DNS)57Mail Transfer Protocol (MTP)67BOOTP68BOOTP
2
 
1 - INTRODUCTION
69TFTP79Finge80HTTP107Remote Telnet109Post Office Protocol 2 (POP2)110POP3115Simple FTP (SFTP)118SQL services123Network Time Protocol (NTP)137NetBIOS Name Service138NetBIOS Datagram Service139NetBIOS Session Service143Internet Message Access Protocol (IMAP)156SQL service161Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP)162SNMP Trap179Border Gateway Protocol (BGP)194Internet Relay Chat (IRC)213IPX2.
registered ports
- ranging from 1024 to 49151 – registered by ICANN, as a convenienceto the community, should be accessible to ordinary users. A selective list of some of theseports is listed below:Port numberUDP protocolTCP protocolOthe1080SOCKS proxy1085WebObjects1098RMI activation1099RMI registry1414IBM WebSphere MQ1521Oracle DB default listene2030Oracle services for Microsoft Transaction Serve2049Network File System2082CPanel default3306MySQL DB system3690Subversion version control system3724World of Warcraft online gaming4664Google Desktop Search
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