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R-intro

R-intro

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Published by Fanny Sylvia C.
Guide to R
Guide to R

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Published by: Fanny Sylvia C. on Feb 21, 2008
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An Introduction to R
Notes on R: A Programming Environment for Data Analysis and GraphicsVersion 2.6.2 (2008-02-08)
W. N. Venables, D. M. Smithand the R Development Core Team
 
Copyrightc
1990 W. N. VenablesCopyrightc
1992 W. N. Venables & D. M. SmithCopyrightc
1997 R. Gentleman & R. IhakaCopyrightc
1997, 1998 M. MaechlerCopyrightc
1999–2006 R Development Core TeamPermission is granted to make and distribute verbatim copies of this manual provided the copy-right notice and this permission notice are preserved on all copies.Permission is granted to copy and distribute modified versions of this manual under the condi-tions for verbatim copying, provided that the entire resulting derived work is distributed underthe terms of a permission notice identical to this one.Permission is granted to copy and distribute translations of this manual into another language,under the above conditions for modified versions, except that this permission notice may bestated in a translation approved by the R Development Core Team.ISBN 3-900051-12-7
 
i
Table of Contents
Preface
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11 Introduction and preliminaries
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2
1.1 The R environment
............................................................
21.2 Related software and documentation
............................................
21.3 R and statistics
...............................................................
21.4 R and the window system
......................................................
31.5 Using R interactively
..........................................................
31.6 An introductory session
........................................................
41.7 Getting help with functions and features
........................................
41.8 R commands, case sensitivity, etc.
..............................................
41.9 Recall and correction of previous commands
.....................................
51.10 Executing commands from or diverting output to a file
..........................
51.11 Data permanency and removing objects
........................................
5
2 Simple manipulations; numbers and vectors
. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7
2.1 Vectors and assignment
........................................................
72.2 Vector arithmetic
..............................................................
72.3 Generating regular sequences
...................................................
82.4 Logical vectors
................................................................
92.5 Missing values
.................................................................
92.6 Character vectors
............................................................
102.7 Index vectors; selecting and modifying subsets of a data set
......................
102.8 Other types of objects
........................................................
3 Objects, their modes and attributes
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.1 Intrinsic attributes: mode and length
..........................................
133.2 Changing the length of an object
..............................................
143.3 Getting and setting attributes
.................................................
143.4 The class of an object
........................................................
4 Ordered and unordered factors
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.1 A specific example
............................................................
164.2 The function
tapply()
and ragged arrays
......................................
164.3 Ordered factors
..............................................................
5 Arrays and matrices
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.1 Arrays
.......................................................................
185.2 Array indexing. Subsections of an array
........................................
185.3 Index matrices
...............................................................
195.4 The
array()
function
........................................................
205.4.1 Mixed vector and array arithmetic. The recycling rule
......................
205.5 The outer product of two arrays
...............................................
215.6 Generalized transpose of an array
..............................................
215.7 Matrix facilities
..............................................................
225.7.1 Matrix multiplication
....................................................

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