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Reactions of Alkanes:

Reactions of Alkanes:

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Published by Kunjal
O CHEM
O CHEM

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Published by: Kunjal on Oct 13, 2009
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08/03/2011

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CHAPTER 3
Reactions of Alkanes:Bond-Dissociation Energies,Radical Halogenation, andReactivity
 
Strength of Alkane Bonds: Radicals3-1
Breaking a bond requires heat. This energy is called thebond-dissociation energy, DH
0
, orbond strength.H-H
H· +
H
0
= DH
0
= 104 kcal mol
-1
Radicals are formed by homolytic cleavage.
When a bond breaks leaving the bonding electrons equally dividedbetween the atoms, the process is calledhomolytic cleavageorhomolysis:Species containing more than one atom and an unpaired electron
are called radicals.
Free atoms and radicals exist as intermediates in smallconcentrations during the course of many reactions but cannotusually be isolated.
 
Heterolyltic cleavageresults in the formation of ions, rather than
radicals:Homolytic Cleavage:
Nonpolar solventsGas phaseHeterolytic Cleavage:Polar solvents (stabilize ions)Electronegativities of atoms support ion formation

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