Welcome to Scribd, the world's digital library. Read, publish, and share books and documents. See more
Download
Standard view
Full view
of .
Save to My Library
Look up keyword
Like this
1Activity
0 of .
Results for:
No results containing your search query
P. 1
Executive Summary

Executive Summary

Ratings: (0)|Views: 36 |Likes:
Inuit Victims of Sexual Exploitation and Human Trafficking in Nunavut Report
Inuit Victims of Sexual Exploitation and Human Trafficking in Nunavut Report

More info:

Published by: Madeleine Alexander Redfern on Mar 01, 2014
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

Availability:

Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
download as DOCX, PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd
See more
See less

03/01/2014

pdf

text

original

 
Inuit Victims of Sexual Exploitation and Human Trafficking in Nunavut
Executive Summary written by Madeleine Redfern, Ajungi Arctic Consulting, February 2014
1
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
 
BACKGROUND
As a result of 2012-2013
Human Trafficking Stakeholder Consultations, National Summary Report 
, the Federal Government provided additional funding to further assess the issue of sexual exploitation and human trafficking of particularly vulnerable groups, such as northern and aboriginal women, including Inuit women and children. The first report recognized that women in northern regions, particularly indigenous women, may share some of the same risk factors as their southern counterpart. However, their relative isolation and challenges related to accessing basic needs may pose additional vulnerabilities that are unique to remote regions. Through frontline victim services information in Ottawa, it was reported that over 40 Inuit youth and women had experienced sexual exploitation and human trafficking. In 2013, Roos-Remillard Consulting Services secured a federal contribution to research the issue against known best practices in victim services and knowledge of national and international scenarios of human trafficking.
RESEARCH TEAM
Roos-Remillard Consulting Services, in collaboration with Pauktuutit, Government of Nunavut representatives, RCMP, Crowns and key frontline organizations in Nunavut and Ottawa, undertook this research. Helen Roos, M.A. has extensive experience working on aboriginal issues. From 1999 to 2005, Ms. Roos lived in Nunavut and worked in senior positions with INAC (now AANDC) and Canadian Heritage on a variety issues, including but not limited to Inuit labour force development, facilitating community consultations on a variety of issues including housing, homelessness, economic development, training, Inuktitut language, culture, heritage and employment. Other key partners are the Coalition to End Human Trafficking, Ottawa Police Service and an Inuk survivor of human trafficking from Iqaluit (name withheld to protect her identity).
METHODOLOGY
The team ensured the research approach was culturally relevant and gendered. In other words, the approach taken was Inuit specific-and reflected the needs and usability of the programs for Inuit women and youth. All consultations and shared information including documents were translated and transmitted in plain language, both in English and Inuktitut. Where appropriate and necessary counselling supports were made available. Multiple meetings, a stakeholder roundtable and frontline worker interviews were conducted in Iqaluit, with a therapeutic art project with survivors in Ottawa. The majority (80%) of the research was conducted in Nunavut with frontline workers and officials. Pauktuutit fully participated in information gathering and was present at all key meetings and interviews. Information and statistics for this report have been derived from Statistics Canada, Nunavut Bureau of Statistics, reports, facts and figures provided by stakeholders and directly from community members. These included victim service providers, first responders, key persons from within the federal and territorial departments: justice, health, social services, victim services specialists, elders and affected community members.
 
Inuit Victims of Sexual Exploitation and Human Trafficking in Nunavut
Executive Summary written by Madeleine Redfern, Ajungi Arctic Consulting, February 2014
2
CRIMINAL OFFENCE
In Canada and in Nunavut, under s.279.01 of the Criminal Code, it is crime if a person has recruited, transported, transferred, received, held, concealed, or harboured a person, or exercised control, direction or influence over the movements of the person, and did any one of these acts and methods for the purpose of exploiting the person or facilitated their exploitation.
DEFINITIONS
Since the report focuses on sexual exploitation and human trafficking, it is important that people have a clear understanding of what the terms and associated actions are to fully appreciate the report findings.
Sexual exploitation
 
 –
 exploitation of a person sexually, to offer to provide, sexual activities or services through coercion, threats, deception, or abuse of a position of trust or authority. Sex is exchanged for cash or other things, such as food, shelter, drugs, alcohol, protection or other basic necessities of life.
Human trafficking
 
 –
 to lure, recruit, confine, transport a person for the purpose of forced labour, sex work or organ trafficking. The offender can be anyone, from a family member, friend, boyfriend/husband, individual affiliated with a gang or a criminal organization.
RESEARCH FINDINGS
There is evidence that some Inuit women and youth have been or are being sexually exploited and subjected to human trafficking, both in Nunavut and in the south. Sexual exploitation is a highly hidden criminal activity and chronically underreported to police. Given the nature of these crimes, the majority of victims and survivors, are extremely vulnerable and fear retaliation, rejection, embarrassment, shaming and humiliation if they report crimes to police or by their family, friends and community.
Most at Risk
The majority of survivors experienced sexual abuse in their childhood, often “brought into the trade” by a family member, boyfriend or “friend”. Pauktuutit’s
No More Secrets Report 
, 1991, stated that the average age of a victim is 9.7 years old with the average age of the violate is 29 years of age. Thirty-one percent (31%) of Qanuippitali Inuit Health Survey (Nunavut) 2012, respondents experienced
several physical abuse as children
. Many survivors did not know their body or sexuality was theirs to control or that they have rights over their own body. Women, youth and children (girls and boys) most at risk are between the ages of 14 (or younger) to 30 years of age, experienced sexual abuse as children, living in poverty, low self esteem, issues with substance use/abuse, may have grown up in foster care or unstable/dysfunctional home environment and seek security, affection and love. In Nunavut, given the lack of housing, overcrowding in many homes, poverty, historical trauma, lack of systemic supports, there are very few options for vulnerable, marginalized and desperate individuals. It is important to note that simply being vulnerable does not automatically mean that persons have been or will be sexually exploited or participated in exploitation. However, such
 
Inuit Victims of Sexual Exploitation and Human Trafficking in Nunavut
Executive Summary written by Madeleine Redfern, Ajungi Arctic Consulting, February 2014
3
factors increase a persons vulnerability given the circumstances and lack of options and supports.
It’s all too commonplace to see older men “dating” younger Inuit girls and women, where parents saw them being in “love” and
 hoped that she would be cared for. However, this can sometimes
be a dangerous scenario, where parents and others may not recognize a predator in their child’s or young woman’s life.
In Nunavut
In Nunavut, the majority of suspected cases of sexual exploitation of women and minors are linked to survival sex, where sex is traded for food, shelter and other goods. In some cases, women who are forced by their partners to sleep with other men were later abused for their supposed infidelity. As such, the majority of such cases in Nunavut happen at the individual level and is not part of larger organized crime. Nonetheless, such activities fall within the definition of sexual exploitation and human trafficking. The RCMP laid a s.279 charge against a 31 year old Inuk woman accused of human trafficking and sexually exploiting a minor. While the  judge reduced it to four charges of prostituting a minor under s. 212(4) of the Criminal Code, it is important to recognize that this crime is occurring in Nunavut. In 2012, the RCMP also investigated two women allegedly pimping out an 11 year old, who was performing sexual services in exchange for money, liquor and drugs. There was insufficient evidence for the RCMP to lay charges. Unfortunately these are not the only examples, rather a sampling of such types of activities. Over time, it is likely more cases will come to light, especially as work continues to expose these crimes and assist victims.
Adoptions including Inuit Custom Adoption
Between 1999 to 2010, 2,522 children were adopted; 2,291 of whom were adopted through the Inuit custom adoption process, by far the largest adoption mechanism in Nunavut. There are no requirements under the custom adoption process for social workers to conduct safety checks of adoptive homes or criminal background checks of prospective adoptive parents. There are concerns about the possible use Inuit custom adoption, especially where an Inuk baby is being adopted to non-Inuit parent(s), especially those who live out of territory without all the usual protections and procedures of state or private adoptions. The Auditor General of Canada in 2011 Family Services Report recommended that all adoption applications have the requisite paperwork and that measures be adopted to ensure the best interests of the children to be adopted, whether by state, private or custom adoption
are in place to ensure these children’s
 safety. The RCMP was alerted to a man who attempted to sell a child on Facebook but when the RCMP
investigated they were told ominously “do not interfere in our business.” There wasn’t suffi
cient evidence to lay charges. It should not be left up to chance or hope that all these adopted and gifted children are ending up in safe homes and reduce the possibility of them being subjected to exploitation. Most societies have stopped or put in strict measures, whenever their children are being adopted out of their society and culture. This issue requires further research to understand the extent of the risks and what measures can be put in place to ensure the best interests of the child and ensure the safety and well-being of Inuit children being adopted through custom adoption.
Foster Care

You're Reading a Free Preview

Download
/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->