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Network Management

Network Management

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Published by SatyendraSrivastava
Network management or governance can be described as a pluricentric system - as opposed to the unicentric system of hierarchies or state rule and the multicentric system of market competition..
Network management or governance can be described as a pluricentric system - as opposed to the unicentric system of hierarchies or state rule and the multicentric system of market competition..

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Published by: SatyendraSrivastava on Mar 02, 2014
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Paper 2
Network Form of Organization
This paper explores how network form of organizing can help non-profits in general - and the school reform & national parks, as discussed in the two referred documents
 in particular. For conceptual elements, the paper refers to a third source-
 Networks As Learning Communities : Shaping The Future of Teacher Development 
 ! "nn #ieerman. $ome of the oser%ation are ased on authors experience in 'ndian %oluntar! sector.
What is Network management?
(etwork management or go%ernance can e descried as a
 s!stem - as opposed to the
 s!stem of hierarchies or state rule and the
 s!stem of market competition )*ersergen, *. %an & +aarden, F. %an 2. The! could e considered halfwa! etween market and firm, a lend of oth. 'n contrast to hierarchies of %ertical organizations and competiti%e markets, network management in%ol%es a large numer of interdependent actors who interact in order to produce pulic purpose, goods or ser%ices.
Below- Schematic iagram !Firm" Network" #arket$:
These are neulous, order-less entities spanning man! organizations/ the! exhiit lateral form of communication and collaorati%e prolem sol%ing ailities/ "ccountailit! in a network is dri%en ! stake-holders, not ! an external mandate. 't is a sensile response to a complex en%ironment, where 0uick changes in 'nformation ommunication Technolog! and market forces create an atmosphere of uncertaint! and continuous change. 3ut networks are less aout technolog! and more aout people and culture
14eform Through $chool (etworks5 " (ew kind of "uthorit! and "ccountailit! )"ndrew *. $mith & Priscilla +ohlstetter6o%erning 3! (etwork5 The (ew $hape of The Pulic sector )$tephen 6oldsmith, +illiam 7. 8ggers29asan, 9. & Pousti, 9. 2:.
MarketsVertical Hierarchies
Pluricentric Networks
Multicentric MarketsUnicentric Hierarchies
" stud! of school reform networks identified fi%e salient features of such networks )Parker, 1;<<
51" strong sense of
 to an idea5 'n the case of 6olden 6ate (ational 4ecreational "rea )66(4" in $an Francisco, (ational Park $er%ice and the local non-profits had a clear commitment to reclamation and conser%ation of nature so that it could enefit the larger communit!. This was a huge task, which state grants- e%en if the! were a%ailale, would not ha%e sufficed to achie%e. 'n the second case, it was a commitment to increase student achie%ement across "## schools- "massador "nnenergs challenge to "mericas pulic schools. Traditional school ! school reforms had failed to dent the o%erall s!stem.2" sense of
shared purpose
5 in oth the cases state ureaucrac! and ci%il societ! institutions or non-profits see an opportunit! for collaoration leading to success, in terms of pulic good. =" mixture of
information sharing
psychological support
5 'n the school reform networks, road ased learning plans and self-e%aluation plans were de%eloped ased on large scale sur%e!s. 'n 66(4", the park superintendent de%eloped a strategic plan and shared it with all the stake holders, who constituted >2? as opposed to mere 1>? of the park staff itself. These other pla!ers- uni%ersities and non-profits, were not onl! pro%iding funds and human resource ut o%iousl! were offering emotional support to each other in a situation full of uncertainties and flux. $ince the risk )& lame of failure is eing distriuted all o%er the network, this approach offers a etter ps!chological stance to explore and experiment with new ideas. "
 who ensures %oluntar! participation and e0ual treatment5 The park superintendent appears to pla! this role in 66(4". 'n the school reform network, as it e%ol%es o%er time, there are man! facilitators5 $chool district administrator who sets up the network, who is replaced o%er time ! a Principal who tries to ensure continued operation of the network. #ater, since it was too much of a responsiilit!, a post of $chool famil! facilitator was created in man! schools. These shifting roles ha%e een captured well in = categories5 Founder )"rchitect, 3oundar! spanner @ the actor who is trusted ! more than one organization and the 3roker- who mediates exchange of information and transactions. A"n
 ethos5 'n oth the cases, %arious actors are rising ao%e their routine role expectations/ the! are ale to percei%e a nole idea and their role in it. This is wh! the end result far exceeds the simple sum of their indi%idual contriutions. "s the school reform case stud! mentions- the network approach not onl! impro%ed 0ualit! of education for the students ut also exposed the educator )teachers to a higher form of collaorati%e learning.
Comparison with Resource dependency model 
'n resource dependenc! model, if Brganization " depends on Brganization 3 for inputs )or outputs for its core processes B4 is in competition with it, it would ideall! attempt a merger- %ertical in the first case, horizontal in the second case. Bnce the merger is o%er, it must deal with the new organization 5 oth its assets and liailities. 3ut in a network model, it can create functional links with the other organization without a take o%er, and work through trust, negotiations and mutual political oligation.
How a network can assist non-profits?
"s discussed ao%e, an organization can e distracted from its core operations, ecause of the external constraints, like dependencies on critical resources- funds, human resource, know-how,
="s 0uoted in "nn #ieermann article.
markets. 3ridging or uffering attempts ma! consume considerale time and efforts- and still ma! not gi%e the ad%antages of a networking approach. For example, in 66(4" case stud!, the network of non-profits, was not onl! ale to generate more than C= million for the reno%ation, ut in addition roped in unprecedented support from the communit! and %oluntar! agencies in the form of educational and en%ironmental programs at the park. 9ad the park approached ongress, it would ha%e recei%ed onl! the necessar! funds, if at all. This generous support from ci%il societ! allowed the park to o%ersee and run the core ser%ices, with Dust 1>? of the staff in the park. 't is interesting to note that one of the core functions, as %iewed ! the Park management is the o%erall facilitation of this network5 Ewe tr! to get our people to see themsel%es as facilitators, con%eners, and rokers of how to engage the communit!s talents to get our work accomplished.G )3rian B(eill, (ational Park $er%ice $uperintendent 3ut networks ring not onl! funds and human resource, the! also ring in knowledge and technical inno%ation as a %aluale resource, for example in a school reform network uni%ersities ma! introduce inno%ati%e pedagogical elements in the class room. Bther ad%antages in this context was communit! ased collaoration, which ensured that schools de%eloped a ridging program, suitale to the needs of the students from the larger communit!. 'n traditional school ! school reform, the principal was the weakest link. $he was answerale to the 7istrict ureaucrac! alone. $he, dri%en ! parochial interests, could easil! derail the entire reform process. 3ut the network approach spreads out the authorit! and resources more e%enl! and ensures that reforms are dri%en & sustained ! man! actors, limited not Dust to one school or communit!. "lso, since man! schools and uni%ersities were memers of these networks, cost of research, de%elopment and training programs were etter utilized and shared. (etworks also rought aout attitudinal changes in schools5 since the! were not Dust oe!ing the district ureaucrac!- ut initiating their own prolem sol%ing exercise in collaoration with other schools and uni%ersities, the! were much more open to experimenting with new ideas, self and peer e%aluations etc. "ll these changes and ad%antages led to impro%ements in the core function of the schools5 significant impro%ement in learning en%ironment. (etwork organizations, unlike ig hierarchies, are known to e fast and flexile in adapting to the changes in the underl!ing en%ironment. This can e an important consideration for the sur%i%al of small non-profits.
How can managers build a network form of organization?
For this, the first step will e5 can the manager unlearn his  her straight Dacketed role of a traditional manager )Egetting the Do doneG and %iew himherself as a facilitatorH " negotiatorH " ene%olent ut astute politicianH (etworks depend on negotiation, not on force or compulsion. (etwork management is collaoration, not take o%er. (etwork management demands group process skills much more than technical skills. 't also re0uires ailit! to see far and holisticall! - and communicate the %ision to other stake holders con%incingl!. $o the first re0uirement is51. " compelling
5 the founder must do a road ased need assessment )stake holder anal!sis and come up with a solution. 2.
 traits5 " network manager should ideall! ha%e two 0ualities- " (etwork mentalit!5 a holistic sense of social structure the! elong to/ understanding of social space, their place in it, %arious structures and relations in it. 3 Inderstanding of network as a +9B#8, rather than mere complementarit! and particular partnerships in it. People ma! or ma! not e orn with these traits. The! ma! learn these as the! go. " stud! indicates that e%en neurotics ma! succeed as network managers if the! persist
Group process skills
5 The manager needs to de%elop facilitation skills, moilization, negotiation
1: - 1 - +88*> - $$ 1 - (etwork manager.mp

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