reaction is accelerated by heat, however, the reaction can readily proceed at lower temperatures, but at a slower reactions rate, which translates into a longer time.
Normally, enzymatic browning that is responsible for the discoloration appeared in some freshcut fruits and vegetable, such as apples and potatoes is undesirable. Enzymatic browning is achemical process involving polyphenol oxidase or other enzymes that create melanin, resultingin a brown color. Enzymatic browning is an important color reaction in fruit, vegetable andseafood. The taste of fruits is influenced by phenoloic compounds. Phenolic compounds arewidely distribute in the plant kingdom and are considered to be secondary metabolites.Structurally they contain an aromatic ring bearing one or more hydroxyl groups, together with anumber of other substituent like simple phenolics, cinnamic acid derivatives and flavanoids. Aswell as phenolic compounds are substrate for polyphenol oxidases. These enzymes hydroxylatemonophenols to o-diphenols and also oxidize o-diphenols to o-quinones. O-quinones can enter entre into number of reactions, thus giving the undesirable brown discoloration. An overview of known poly-phenols involved in browning. Polyphenoloxidase catalyzed reaction shown below.Table 1: An overview of known poly-phenols involved in browningSource Phenolic substratesApple chlorogenic acid (flesh), catechol, catechin (peel), caffeic acid, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA), 3,4-dihydroxy benzoic acid, p-cresol, 4-methyl catechol, leucocyanidin, p-coumaric acid, flavonolglycosidesApricot isochlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, 4-methyl catechol, chlorogenicacid, catechin, epicatechin, pyrogallol, catechol, flavonols, p-coumaric acid derivativesAvocado 4-methyl catechol, dopamine, pyrogallol, catechol, chlorogenic acid,caffeic acid, DOPABanana 3,4-dihydroxyphenylethylamine (Dopamine), leucodelphinidin,leucocyanidinCacao catechins, leucoanthocyanidins, anthocyanins, complex tannins