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Browning Reaction - Assignment

Browning Reaction - Assignment

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Published by: kolita kamal on Oct 14, 2009
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Browning Reaction ofFoods
2009-JulyB.K.K.K.Jinadasa,GS/MSc/FOOD/3608/08,Department of food science and technology,University of Sri Jayawardanapura.
 
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Introduction:
There are two major categories of browning that occur in foods: Non-enzymatic and Enzymatic.The major difference between these two categories of browning is that enzymatic browningrequires the presence of an enzyme, such as polyphenol oxidase, whereas non-enzymatic browning does not. In general, enzymatic browning, which is responsible for the discolorationobserved in some fresh cut fruits and vegetables, such as apples and potatoes, is undesirable. Normally, the cell structure separates the enzymes from the phenolic substrate; however, then thefruit or vegetable is cut or bruised the enzymes and phenols can now come together and react inthe presence of oxygen to produce undesirable brown-color compounds. Non-enzymatic browning, on the other hand, is responsible for a number of pleasant and desirable aromas andflavors. Unfortunately, there are also some undesirable results of non-enzymatic browning. Thetwo main types of non-enzymatic browning that occur in foods are the Maillard reaction andCarmelization. The Maillard reaction is a chemical reaction between (the carbonyl group) areducing sugar and the free amino group of an amino acid or a protein. The rate of the Maillardreaction is accelerated by heat (e.g., baking temperatures of 300° F to 500° F), however, thereaction can readily proceed at lower temperatures, but at a slower reactions rate, whichtranslates into a longer time. A reducing sugar is a type of sugar with an aldehyde or ketonegroup. Common reducing sugars include glucose, fructose, and lactose. It is important to notethat sucrose, common table sugar, is a non-reducing sugar, however, high temperatures and low pH values can cause the sucrose molecule to hydrolyze that is break apart, into one unit of glucose and one unit of fructose. After hydrolysis, the component sugars of sucrose begin participating in the Maillard reaction. Once the initial Maillard reaction begins a cascade of additional reactions take place, eventually forming brown nitrogen containing polymers and co- polymers called melanoidins. The Maillard reaction is responsible for many desirable colors andflavors in foods, such as caramel made from milk and sugar, the browning of bread into toast, thecolor of beer, chocolate, coffee, and maple syrup, and the flavor of roast meat. The Maillardreaction is responsible for literally hundreds of flavor compounds, and is even used by flavor chemists to create artificial flavors. The Maillard reaction is a chemical reaction between areducing sugar and the free amino group of an amino acid or a protein. The rate of the Maillard
 
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reaction is accelerated by heat, however, the reaction can readily proceed at lower temperatures, but at a slower reactions rate, which translates into a longer time.
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Enzymatic browning:
 Normally, enzymatic browning that is responsible for the discoloration appeared in some freshcut fruits and vegetable, such as apples and potatoes is undesirable. Enzymatic browning is achemical process involving polyphenol oxidase or other enzymes that create melanin, resultingin a brown color. Enzymatic browning is an important color reaction in fruit, vegetable andseafood. The taste of fruits is influenced by phenoloic compounds. Phenolic compounds arewidely distribute in the plant kingdom and are considered to be secondary metabolites.Structurally they contain an aromatic ring bearing one or more hydroxyl groups, together with anumber of other substituent like simple phenolics, cinnamic acid derivatives and flavanoids. Aswell as phenolic compounds are substrate for polyphenol oxidases. These enzymes hydroxylatemonophenols to o-diphenols and also oxidize o-diphenols to o-quinones. O-quinones can enter entre into number of reactions, thus giving the undesirable brown discoloration. An overview of known poly-phenols involved in browning. Polyphenoloxidase catalyzed reaction shown below.Table 1: An overview of known poly-phenols involved in browningSource Phenolic substratesApple chlorogenic acid (flesh), catechol, catechin (peel), caffeic acid, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA), 3,4-dihydroxy benzoic acid, p-cresol, 4-methyl catechol, leucocyanidin, p-coumaric acid, flavonolglycosidesApricot isochlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, 4-methyl catechol, chlorogenicacid, catechin, epicatechin, pyrogallol, catechol, flavonols, p-coumaric acid derivativesAvocado 4-methyl catechol, dopamine, pyrogallol, catechol, chlorogenic acid,caffeic acid, DOPABanana 3,4-dihydroxyphenylethylamine (Dopamine), leucodelphinidin,leucocyanidinCacao catechins, leucoanthocyanidins, anthocyanins, complex tannins

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