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Financial Statement Analysis Old School Value

Financial Statement Analysis Old School Value

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Published by Jae Jun
http://www.oldschoolvalue.com
Financial statement analysis series covering how to interpret, what to look for and the warnings signs for investors as they go through the financial statements. A must for all investors.
http://www.oldschoolvalue.com
Financial statement analysis series covering how to interpret, what to look for and the warnings signs for investors as they go through the financial statements. A must for all investors.

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Categories:Business/Law, Finance
Published by: Jae Jun on Oct 14, 2009
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October 14th, 2009Published by: jjun0366
Created using zinepal.com . Go online to create your own zines or read what others have already published.
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Financial Statement Analysis |Old School Value
 
Financial statement analysis ebook of the incomestatement, balance sheet and statement of cash flows.Learn how to interpret the statements rather than justread the numbers. A must for all investors.
Income Statement Analysis:CROX
In this series of analyzing the financial statements, I’ll begoing over a few basic ideas of what to look for in financialstatements, not how to read them, for the beginner investor wanting to research or keep up to date with their companies.The purpose of this post is to help you understand thecompany’s health and let you decide whether it is worth theextra effort to take the next step and plug in numbers for ratiosand other metrics.Let’s begin by taking a look at the Income Statement for Crocs(CROX) andtry to find warning and other signs.To help get new investors started,here are some greatresources to get you started on the Income Statement
Understanding the Income Statement
Income Statement Analysis
Understanding Income Statements
Crocs Income Statement (click toenlarge)Cost of Goods Sold
 When analyzing the income statement, we should always try tocompare each line with Revenues as a percentage. As numbersgo from 6 figures (millions in revenue) to 9 figures (billionsin revenue), it’s easy to lose track of the numbers. Below is ascreenshot of how I have my investment spreadsheetset up.Straight away we see that Crocs COGS (Cost of Goods Sold) is98.6% of revenues in its latest quarter. Also keep an eye out forhow COGS increases in relation to sales over many quarters. If COGS increases faster than sales, that is a red flag which must be looked into.
Margins
If we then move to the gross profit line we have to considermany things regarding margins. Gross margins tell you a lotabout a firm’s competitive position. If a company can increaseits gross margins, the company is doing two things;1.cutting production costs or2.raising pricesBoth are good signs and margins that can trend up is always agood thing and will lead to an increase in future earnings.Unfortunately, for Crocs, compared to a year ago, theirmargins have jumped off a cliff from an impressive 60% to1.4% in 3 months ended September 30. This deteriorationcould mean that raw and production costs are rising, asevidenced by the increase in COGS compared to 2007.If production costs increase, the company has toproportionally increase their prices, but do people really wantto spend an extra $5 for an already expensive fad shoe? Onthe other hand, if a rise in production cost is not the cause,then the company must be cutting prices in order to maintainmarket share and gain some revenues.
 
October 14th, 2009Published by: jjun0366
Created using zinepal.com . Go online to create your own zines or read what others have already published.
2
Brad atTMWTFShas stated clearly that a company should never compete onprice. Those that do, have no competitive advantage.Operating margins and net margins also provide vitalinformation about the capabilities of the company. Grossmargins could be superb but if operating margins are low,any drop in gross margins could have a material effect on theoverall profit of the company. Huge drop in gross margins leadto a loss in operations and subsequently, net margins. An important note about margins is that we must identify thecompany strategy before immediately jumping to conclusions.Crocs is an example of a typical company banking on highreturns with low inventory turnover to make a profit. Costco, Wal-Mart and other super retailers have small margins yettheir inventory turnover is extremely high. The volume of products sold is where the profits come from. So think strategy  before dismissing a company completely.
Selling, General and AdministrativeExpenses
For a company doing so poorly, SG&A for Crocs is far too high.High SG&A for any company is a serious problem. This lineis also where companies expense the limos, private jets, boatsetc used by executives. For a company doing so poorly, as ashareholder you would expect the CEO to take economy.Companies should try to keep SG&A to a certain percentageof revenues. This prevents future problems caused by hiringsprees and huge bonuses. Costco has been able to keeptheir SG&A between 8.5-10% for the past 10 years. A clearindication of the quality of management.
Impairment Charges
 A fancy way of saying “we made some bad decisions which willcost us millions of dollars”. This is not a line in the IncomeStatement that we want to see. Crocs is writing off $31.6mfrom goodwill in the 3rd quarter which is essentially writingoff $31.6m from equity. Another reason why a company withhigh goodwill should be examined further.Impairment charges is also another way to evaluatemanagement.
The impairment charge also provides investorswith a way to evaluate corporate management and its decision-making track record. Companiesthat have to write off billions of dollars dueto impairment have not made good investment decisions. Managements that bite the bullet and take an honest all-encompassing charge should be viewed more favorably than those who slowlybleed a company to death by deciding to take aseries of recurring impairment charges, therebymanipulating reality. - Investopedia
Other Income, Income tax, EPS, SharesOutstanding
Footnotes should always be reference to determine exactly  what Other Income is. This is evermore true if the number ishigh.Income tax and Earnings Per Share (EPS) is straightforwardand doesn’t require additional comments.Shares outstanding should be monitored as well. Always usethe diluted number as it includes stock options. Crocs has been buying back its shares from the previous year in an attempt toincrease shareholder value but that is a minor point comparedto what has been discussed above.
Summary
 View numbers as percentages and compare over severalquarters and years
COGS should never be higher than sales
Margins reflect competitive position and company strategy 
SG&A and Impairment Charges determines thecompany’s management quality 
Balance Sheet Analysis:Circuit City
In this example, let us analyze the Balance Sheet for CircuitCity.To help get new investors started, here are some greatresources on the Balance Sheet:
Fundamental Analysis: The Balance Sheet
Understanding the Balance Sheet
Circuit City Balance Sheet (click toenlarge)Cash
 Any company with lots of cash is a reassurance to investorsthat the company should be able to survive during downturnsas well as expand during booms.Divide the cash by the number of shares outstanding to seehow much of the stock price is made of cash. On Feb 29,2008, Circuit City had $1.76 in cash per share but by August31, 2008, that number dropped to $0.54 and has probably dropped further since then.If the cash per share is greater than the share price, it could bea potentialnet net.
 
October 14th, 2009Published by: jjun0366
Created using zinepal.com . Go online to create your own zines or read what others have already published.
3
Accounts Receivables
 As I will cover in theStatement of Cash Flows analysis,accounts receivables is an indication of whether the company is able to collect its payments. If accounts receivables decreasefrom the previous years (you have to compare by going back afew years), the company has been able to collect its money.If this is continually increasing, the company is either willingto sell to anyone or the company may have become lenientin its payment policies to customers which could lead to aninflation of earnings causing nasty surprises later on.Compare the increase in accounts receivable with increase insales. e.g. If accounts receivables has increased 120% whilesales only increased 90%, the company is not collecting bills.I’ve only displayed a quarterly statement for Circuit City butif we look back at the previous statements, Circuit City has been unsuccessful in reducing this line. Although the sumof $330mil is a good reduction from $447mil in Nov 2007,the overall story shows that Circuit City has an unimpressivepayment collection system.
Inventory
One of the most important aspects of the balance sheet. BenGraham has written that inventory should be marked downto 50% of its valuation when calculating aliquidating value.This is true especially when it comes to electronics. With aproduct life cycle lasting only a few months, old inventory willcontinually have to be discounted.Inventory should also be compared with cost of goods.This inventory indicator is a reliable sign of whether amanufacturer or retail company will stumble if the differenceis substantial. In terms of inventory growth, Circuit City hasn’tdone too bad of a job but their inventory level is far too highfor a business of their size.It’s also a good idea to compare the inventory turnover withcompetitors. While Best Buy has been able to turn over itsinventory 6.9x times a year for the past 5 years,Circuit City has only managed an average of 5.5x in the past 5 years. A further discussion of inventory will be required in anotherpost as we look at how companies calculate and state the valueof inventory.
One Time Items
Deferred income taxes and income tax receivables should not be considered as part of business assets. They add no value tothe operations of the business. Hopefully these numbers arekept low and not included too often. Circuit City needs all thecash it can get. It shouldn’t be overpaying taxes and waiting toreceive it without interest from the government.
PP&E and Goodwill
PP&E is an illiquid asset and is mostly taken into consideration when the company is liquidating.If the company owns land, additional research would be to findtodays market value of the land. As most readers know, goodwill is best ignored. No tangible value exists and impairment charges usually always appearfrom a goodwill that is too high. Although Circuit City “may” have a brand, I believe there is notangible value because thereis nothing stopping a consumerfrom crossing the road to Best Buy if they have better prices.
Liabilities
Liabilities is much like the assets section. There are paymentsthat have to be made and if this number increases, thecompany has not been paying their bills.Circuit City’s problem is that they are overladen with debt andno cash. They need to pay suppliers in excess of $750 mil,expenses in the amount of $270 mil and $343 mil for accruedexpenses and other liabilities as well as a short term debt of $215 mil due shortly. With only $91 mil in cash and the resttied up in inventory, no wonder the suppliers demanded cashup front for delivery of items. Also, watch out for companies like Circuit City that haveaccrued so many expenses. These are obligations that must bepaid which will hit earnings hard.Circuit City has also been deferring its rent credits. Companiesoften abuse deferred charges by pushing expenses into thefuture so that they can inflate earnings even when things arenot going so great.Circuit City’s “other” liabilities add up to over $150 mil soits always important to check the footnotes as well as thepossibility of off balance sheet liabilities.
Quality of assets
Quality of assets is something you should always be asking yourself whenever going through a balance sheet. CircuitCity’s assets are made up of mostly inventory, property andequipment.However, we know that electronics cant hold their value formore than a few months and Circuit City does not own theirstores (land). So all the stated property and equipment isprobably associated to shelves, tables and other shop fittingitems. Nothing that can fetch full value.Quality of assets for Circuit City? BAD
Summing Up
Cash helps companies survive and grow.
 Watch the trend in Accounts Receivables. Be careful of companies unable to collect money.
Take the value of inventory stated on the balance sheet with a grain of salt. Different accounting methods (FIFO,LIFO) produce different ending values even though theproducts are the same.
One time items in assets should not appear often such assale of assets.
PP&E is illiquid and should be considered mostly in assetplays or liquidation. Ignore goodwill.
 All debt isn’t bad. Just when you can’t afford it.
 Assets should be high quality (cash is best)

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