MGREEE PROJECT 2009for connecting a power
transformer to the bus barsystem, it is called a transformer bay, and so on.Normally, a substation contains
a number of
lineand transformer bays and also other bays. All baysare similar to the line bay.Auxiliary circuits are electrical circuits whichcontain measurement, signalling, control andprotection devices.
in a primary circuit alwaysplays a critical role because all functions connectedwith EPS protection, automation and controloperation realized by a substation are realized byswitching devices.
III. TIMELINE DEVELOPMENT
The reference paper , deals with year wisedevelopment of relays and effect of thisdevelopment on automation of substation.
: The first relayfunction were integrated in the breaker designand acted as over current trips. The first stand-alone electromechanical relay  was designedin 1904. The first relay of induction type wasdelivered 1912 to a hydropower station in thenorth of Sweden, built to deliver power at 162/3 Hz to the railway
Fig.2. Electromechanical relay These were mainly used for high powersubstations.
It was introduced in the form of timers, time over current relays etc. Themeasurement is performed by electric,magnetic, optical or other components withthe help of comparison and measurement.Fig. 3.Static relay .
Moving parts and contacts areeliminated.
More precise and high speed operationThese  were famous for their high speedoperation (i.e. 21ms or less) which insures highsecurity
Microprocessor based relays
It operates bycritical filtering of time, performed withanalogue electronics. These are also known asnumeric or programmable relay.
Display information about faulted part
Includes many features such as faultdiagnostic, fault locator etc.
Capable of replacing all specific purposerelay by a single relay for various fault. Theprotection, monitoring and control were alsoeasier for this relay
Remote terminal units (RTU):
Reference paper , deals about RTU Modelling of intelligent substation which started with theintroduction of static relays. Each bay is controlled,protected with different units (e.g. circuit breaker)and provided with multifunction meters (e.g. a faultrecorder and an event recorder). Reference states the basic definition and working of RTU. AnRTU is an electronic device which interfaces datafrom physical world to control system by telemetryso that The operator sitting at control centre canmonitor the substation and take appropriatedecision
Paper  gives an idea of synchronizedoperation of RTU and the interfacing device used.The interfacing device used is Supervisory ControlAnd Data Acquisition (SCADA) system. It has asynchronized sampling rate which made theworking of RTU time dependent and reliable.
Programmable logic control (PLC
In the reference paper  communication of substation is being consider which mainly startedwith the introduction of PLC. It was introduced in1980 for substation control with the integration of RTU . It has been used for switching, loadshedding and restoration and emergency generatorcontrol. With the introduction of SCADA its utilityincreases. Paper  specially emphasise thechanges occurred in a substation when PLC isintroduced. It includes features like automaticswitching, self monitoring, interfacing thesubstation with graphical user interface (GUI) andhuman machine interface (HMI). The interfacingwas done over ethernet. A better monitoring,control and monitoring was done.