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Substation Automation

Substation Automation



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Published by prasoon13
history related works of substation automation
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Published by: prasoon13 on Oct 14, 2009
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Substation Automation using IEC 61850
A. Prasoon Kumar, B. Pratyush Kumar, C. Ratnesh kumar Verma, D. Ruchika.Internal Guide: A. Nalini, lecturer, EEE Department, Dr. M.G.R. University, Chennai.
In the era of automatic operationSubstations which forms a vital node in thetransmission of electrical power system, also needsautomation. The automation of a substation startedearlier in 1900 with the introduction of relays, and isgoing on till now with the introduction of newtechnology which provides communication betweentwo substation to improve the reliability and forbetter efficiency. This paper deals with the time linehistory of automation, the automation technique andthe networking between substations, Concepts whichwere used to develop intelligent substation. The paperalso gives a brief introduction of the latest protocol(IEC61850) developed for the interoperability of substations.
 Index terms
Automation, IEC 61850, IED, relays.Substation communication
Substation automation is a system to enable anelectric utility to remotely monitor, control andcoordinate the distribution component installed inthe substation. It started with the advancement inrelays. Relay is an automatic device which sensesan abnormal condition in an electric circuit andcloses its contact. The first relay was developed in1900 and then onwards their function has beenimproved to a protective device and more to anautomatic device.
The development of relays can be divided intothree main stage: Electromechanical relays, (1900),static or electronic relays, (1960), microprocessorbased relay or numeric relay (1980). The mostadvanced form of relays is known as intelligentelectronic devices (IEDs). Introduction of IEDembarked the communication in between twoequipments. This communication is nothing but thedata sharing module of equipments.Prasoon Kumar, EEE Department, Dr. M.G.RUniversity,Chennai. (prasoon1302@gmail.com). Pratyush Kumar, EEE Department, Dr. M.G.R.University, Chennai. (pratyush.mgr@gmail.com). Ratnesh Kumar Verma, EEE Department. Dr.M.G.R. University, Chennai .(ratnesh.3919@gmail.com)Ruchika, EEE Department, Dr, M.G.R. University,Chennai. (ruchika.jan18@gmail.com)A software development tried to build a systemconsidering the runtime behaviour and assembly of properties than can be obtained from the pattern of interaction. Recently, in 2006 the InternationalElectro technical Committee (IEC) developed aprotocol (IEC61850) which providesinteroperability of substations, to make the controlmore effective and direct.
According to the reference of paper [1], aconventional Substation [1] forms vital nodes inpower networks because, among others, they makepossible modifications in the configuration of networks during the operation of the EPS by meansof switching devices that can be controlled bycomputer-based control systems.Fig1. Architecture of a substation [1]Electric power substations consist of two essentialparts main (high or extra-high voltage) circuits,also called primary circuits and auxiliary circuitsalso called secondary (low- medium voltage )
circuits.The main circuit of a substation composed of a busbar system and connection of power lines, powertransformers, etc. to the bus bar system throughswitching devices. A Substation is divided intobays. If a bay is used to connect a power line to thebus bar system, it is called a line bay, if it is used
MGREEE PROJECT 2009for connecting a power
transformer to the bus barsystem, it is called a transformer bay, and so on.Normally, a substation contains
a number of 
lineand transformer bays and also other bays. All baysare similar to the line bay.Auxiliary circuits are electrical circuits whichcontain measurement, signalling, control andprotection devices.
in a primary circuit alwaysplays a critical role because all functions connectedwith EPS protection, automation and controloperation realized by a substation are realized byswitching devices.
The reference paper [2], deals with year wisedevelopment of relays and effect of thisdevelopment on automation of substation.
Relay operation
: .
 Electromechanical relays
: The first relayfunction were integrated in the breaker designand acted as over current trips. The first stand-alone electromechanical relay [2] was designedin 1904. The first relay of induction type wasdelivered 1912 to a hydropower station in thenorth of Sweden, built to deliver power at 162/3 Hz to the railway
Fig.2. Electromechanical relay [2]These were mainly used for high powersubstations.
Static relays:
It was introduced in the form of timers, time over current relays etc. Themeasurement is performed by electric,magnetic, optical or other components withthe help of comparison and measurement.Fig. 3.Static relay [3].
Moving parts and contacts areeliminated.
More precise and high speed operationThese [3] were famous for their high speedoperation (i.e. 21ms or less) which insures highsecurity
 Microprocessor based relays
It operates bycritical filtering of time, performed withanalogue electronics. These are also known asnumeric or programmable relay.
Display information about faulted part
Includes many features such as faultdiagnostic, fault locator etc.
Capable of replacing all specific purposerelay by a single relay for various fault. Theprotection, monitoring and control were alsoeasier for this relay
Remote terminal units (RTU):
Reference paper [3], deals about RTU Modelling of intelligent substation which started with theintroduction of static relays. Each bay is controlled,protected with different units (e.g. circuit breaker)and provided with multifunction meters (e.g. a faultrecorder and an event recorder). Reference [4]states the basic definition and working of RTU. AnRTU is an electronic device which interfaces datafrom physical world to control system by telemetryso that The operator sitting at control centre canmonitor the substation and take appropriatedecision
Paper [5] gives an idea of synchronizedoperation of RTU and the interfacing device used.The interfacing device used is Supervisory ControlAnd Data Acquisition (SCADA) system. It has asynchronized sampling rate which made theworking of RTU time dependent and reliable.
Programmable logic control (PLC
In the reference paper [6] communication of substation is being consider which mainly startedwith the introduction of PLC. It was introduced in1980 for substation control with the integration of RTU [4]. It has been used for switching, loadshedding and restoration and emergency generatorcontrol. With the introduction of SCADA its utilityincreases. Paper [7] specially emphasise thechanges occurred in a substation when PLC isintroduced. It includes features like automaticswitching, self monitoring, interfacing thesubstation with graphical user interface (GUI) andhuman machine interface (HMI). The interfacingwas done over ethernet. A better monitoring,control and monitoring was done.
MGREEE PROJECT 2009Fig.4. A PLC substation [4]
Goals achieved by this technique are:
Real time data collection
Fail-safe, robust, long term application,
Timely and cost effective implementation
Intelligent electronic devices (IED)
Reference [8] and [6] gives a brief introduction of new gateway i.e. IED. The benefit of newtechnology resulted into fully automated substationwith almost all protection, monitoring and controlfunctions distributed to the line breaker terminals.The more advanced version of these relay isintelligent electronic devices (IED) [5]. A typicalIED can perform around 5-12 operation accordingto the condition required.Fig.5. IED organization [5].The reference paper [9] shows the dependency overIED in current scenario. A case study is dealt withrespect to IED. Now a days dependency of IEDresults the obsolete presence of RTU in theprotection and monitoring purposes. These devicesreceive data from sensors and issue controlcommand. A design incorporated with the IED,local area network (LAN), protocol converterSCADA and human machine interface (HMI) wastested in 1994. It succeeded the next year when itoperated on database. Each IED can perform one ormany sub function operation. A set of such subfunctions are integrated together andcommunicated with each other through Local AreaNetwork (LAN).Fig.6.An IED based substation [6]A Substation [6] divided into nodes according tothe positioning of IED. IEDs installed at nodes in asubstation collect data and communicate directlythrough Ethernet switches over LAN wires. TheHMI recorded the database which increases faulttolerance.Reference paper [12] deals with some difficultiesfaced by user with IED. The user could not directlyinterconnect competing products since the protocolremained unique for each system. Using competingproducts from competing vendors offers a varietyof protection and monitoring capabilities for users,who are often frustrated by the communicationsvariations. They could not interconnect the devices
Real time simulator for SAS
In the reference paper [10], a real time simulatornamed substation automation system (SAS)simulator [7] was designed based on the theory of digital simulator. It introduces the elements,structure and function of substation.Fig.7. Real time simulator model of Substation [7]

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