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Nanotechnology Project

Nanotechnology Project

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Published by chisti1

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Categories:Types, Research, Science
Published by: chisti1 on Oct 14, 2009
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial


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Nanotechnology, shortened to "Nanotech", is the study of the control of matter on anatomicandmolecularscale. Generally nanotechnology deals with structures of the size 100nanometersor smaller, and involves developing materialsor devices within that size. Nanotechnology is very diverse, ranging from novelextensions of conventionaldevice physics, to completely new approaches baseduponmolecular self-assembly, to developingnew materialswith dimensions on the nanoscale, even to speculation on whether we candirectly control matter on the atomic scale. At a glance
 Nanotechnology is the creation of useful materials, devices andsystems through manipulation of miniscule matter, manipulation of matter at the atomic or nonoscale (i.e one billionth of meter).There has been much debate on the future of implications of nano technology. Nanotechnology has the potential to create many new materials and devices with wide-rangingapplications, such as inmedicine,electronics, and energy production. On the other hand, nanotechnology raises many of the same issues as with any introduction of new technology,including concerns about thetoxicityand environmental impact of nanomaterials, and their  potential effects on global economics, as well as speculation about variousdoomsday scenarios. Nanotechnology is an anticipated manufacturing technology giving through,inexpensivecontrol of the structure of matter .The term has sometimes been used to refer to any techniqueable to work at a submicron scale;here it is used in the more usual sense of general control of thestructure of matter on a nanometer scale –that is, a broad ability ton control the arrangemenent of atoms .This ability will require development of devices termed ‘assembleres’.
An assembler will be a device having a submicroscopic robotic arm under computer control .It will work by applying reactive molecular tools to a workpiece,buildingobjects molecule by molecule. Assemblers will pop atoms into place with complete precision,
enabling them to build virtually anything possible under natural law.With proper programming,materials; and so forth, assemblers will be able to build copies of themselves, that is, to replicate.
Although a broad definition, we categories nanomaterials as those which have structuredcomponents with at least one dimension less than 100nm. Materials that have one dimension inthe nano scale (and are extended in the other two dimensions) are layers, such as a thin films or surface coatings. Some of the features on computer chips come in this category. Materials thatare nanoscale in two dimensions (and extended in one dimension) include nanowires andnanotubes. Materials that are nanoscale in three dimensions are particles, for example precipitates, colloids and quantum dots (tiny particles of semiconductor materials). Nanocrystalline materials, made up of nanometre-sized grains, also fall into this category. Someof these materials have been available for some time; others are genuinely new.Two principal factors cause the properties of nanomaterials to differ significantly fromother materials: increased relative surface area, and quantum effects. These factors can change or enhance properties such as reactivity, strength and electrical characteristics. As a particledecreases in size, a greater proportion of atoms are found at the surface compared to those inside.For example, a particle of size 30 nm has 5% of its atoms on its surface, at 10 nm 20% of itsatoms, and at 3 nm 50% of its atoms. Thus nanoparticles have a much greater surface area per unit mass compared with larger particles. As growth and catalytic chemical reactions occur atsurfaces, this means that a given mass of material in nanoparticulate form will be much morereactive than the same mass of material made up of larger particles.To understand the effect of particle size on surface area, consider a U.S. silver dollar.The silver dollar contains 26.96 grams of coin silver, has a diameter of about 40 mm, and has atotal surface area of approximately 27.70 square centimeters. If the same amount of coin silver were divided into tiny particles – say 1 nanometer in diameter – the total surface area of those particles would be 11,400 square meters. When the amount of coin silver contained in a silver dollar is rendered into 1 nm particles, the surface area of those particles is 4.115 million timesgreater than the surface area of the silver dollar!
3)Properties of Nanomaterials:
In tandem with surface-area effects, quantum effects can begin to dominate the properties of matter as size is reduced to the nanoscale. These can affect the optical, electricaland magnetic behaviour of materials, particularly as the structure or particle size approaches the
smaller end of the nanoscale. Materials that exploit these effects include quantum dots, andquantum well lasers for optoelectronics.For other materials such as crystalline solids, as the size of their structural componentsdecreases, there is much greater interface area within the material; this can greatly affect bothmechanical and electrical properties. For example, most metals are made up of small crystallinegrains; the boundaries between the grain slow down or arrest the propagation of defects when thematerial is stressed, thus giving it strength. If these grains can be made very small, or evennanoscale in size, the interface area within the material greatly increases, which enhances itsstrength. For example, nanocrystalline nickel is as strong as hardened steel. Understandingsurfaces and interfaces is a key challenge for those working on nanomaterials, and one wherenew imaging and analysis instruments are vital.
 4)Nanomaterial Science:
Nanomaterials are not simply another step in the miniaturization of materials. They oftenrequire very different production approaches. There are several processes to createnanomaterials, classified as ‘top-down’ and ‘bottom-up’. Although many nanomaterials arecurrently at the laboratory stage of manufacture, a few of them are being commercialised.Below we outline some examples of nanomaterials and the range of nanoscience that is aimed atunderstanding their properties. As will be seen, the behaviour of some nanomaterials is wellunderstood, whereas others present greater challenges.
5)Nanoscale in One Dimension:
Thin films, layers and surfaces:-
One-dimensional nanomaterials, such as thin films and engineered surfaces, have beendeveloped and used for decades in fields such as electronic device manufacture, chemistry andengineering. In the silicon integrated-circuit industry, for example, many devices rely on thinfilms for their operation, and control of film thicknesses approaching the atomic level is routine.Monolayers (layers that are one atom or molecule deep) are also routinely made and used inchemistry. The formation and properties of these layers are reasonably well understood from theatomic level upwards, even in quite complex layers (such as lubricants). Advances are beingmade in the control of the composition and smoothness of surfaces, and the growth of films.Engineered surfaces with tailored properties such as large surface area or specific reactivity areused routinely in a range of applications such as in fuel cells and catalysts. The large surface area

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