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72498_03

72498_03

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Published by Hai Hai
Computer Modelling of Electrical Power Systems
Computer Modelling of Electrical Power Systems

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Published by: Hai Hai on Mar 05, 2014
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3
FACTS AND HVDC TRANSMISSION
3.1 Introduction
As well as the passive components described
in
the previous chapter, modern transmis- sion systems contain a growing number of power electronic devices with the aim of enhancing the power transfer controllability. These are discussed in this chapter under the two categories of FACTS (Flexible a.c. Transmission Systems) and HVDC (High Voltage Direct Current Transmission). Power electronic devices are not amenable to easily manageable equivalent circuits, as their constituent elements vary with the operating condition
in
a non-linear fashion. Therefore, the steady state models of the power electronic devices are described in this chapter in the form of mathematical relationships instead of circuit equivalents.
3.2 Flexible a.c. Transmission Systems
[l]
In the conventional free
flow
mode of operation of a.c. transmission networks, the power flow on individual transmission circuits is determined by the characteristics of the transmission network itself. Moreover, for stable operation sufficient transmis- sion margin must be available at all times
to
accommodate the almost instantaneous redistribution
of
power flow that results from a power system disturbance. Instead of this free flow mode of operation, the power flow through one
or
more transmission lines can be controlled in a predetermined manner, through the appli- cation of power electronic controlled devices at strategic locations. The use of such devices reduces the need for network reinforcements by improving the utilization and performance of existing facilities. The main control actions in a power system, such as changing transformer taps, switching current
or
governing turbine steam pressure, are currently achieved through the use of mechanical devices, which necessarily impose a limit on the speed at which control action can be made. FACTS devices, based on solid-state control, are capable of control actions at far higher speed. The three parameters that control transmission line power flow are line impedanceand the magnitude and phase
of
line end voltages. Conventional control of these parameters, although adequate during steady-state and slowly changing load conditions, cannot, in general,
be
achieved quickly enough to
 
54
3
FACTS AND
HVDC
TRANSMISSION
Sending end Receiving end
Figure
3.1
Simplified transmission system
2
0
a
Figure
3.2
Effect
of
different power
flow
controllers
handle dynamic system conditions. It is shown below that the use of FACTS technology can change this situation. The real and reactive power transferred via the simplified transmission line
of
Figure
3.1
are determined by the following relationships:
p=-
sVR
sin
8,
XL
(3.1) (3.2)
Figure
3.2,
graph
(l),
shows the variation of real power transmission with voltage phase angle difference
6)
for
the case when
(Vsl
=
lV~l V.
The effect
of
the different power flow controllers is also shown in Figure
3.2,
graph
(2)
is
achieved by the insertion
of
series capacitance, graph
(3)
by the presence of a constant voltage source
in
the middle
of
the line in the form of a static
VAR
compensator and graph
(4)
y the use
of
a phase shifter. The characteristics and modelling
of
FACTS devices used to implement the above power flow controls are discussed next.
VS
XL
Q
=
-[v,
case
-
VR]
3.2.1
Thyristor controlled series compensator (TCSC)
The
TCSC
unit shown in Figure
3.3
constitutes the basic module of an Advanced Series Compensator
ASC).
By
exercising phase-angle control
of
the
switching instants the ASC alters the transmission line impedance in a controllable manner
[2,3].
 
3.2
FLEXIBLE
A.C.
TRANSMISSION SYSTEMS
[I]
55
Transmission
line Figure
3.3
Thyristor controlled series capacitor (TCSC)
Figure
3.4
Equivalent
circuit
of
the
basic TCSC module
A
number of these modules
in
series permits, within specified limits
[4]
the following: Flexible, continuous control of the effective line impedance, and thus of the compen- sation level. Direct dynamic control
of
power flow within the network. Damping
of
local and inter-area oscillations, as well as subsynchronous resonances. Figure
3.5
shows the
ASC
voltage
VC
(diagram (a)), the thyristor pair asymmetrical current pulses
i~
(diagram (b)), the capacitor current
ic
(diagram (c)) and the line current
i~
(diagram
(d)),
which is assumed sinusoidal. The chosen time reference is the positive-going zero crossing of the
TCSC
voltage. The waveforms of Figure
3.5
are derived by applying the Laplace Transform to the circuit of Figure
3.4.
The resulting steady state current
[4]
has the following expression: cos
B
cos
fi t
cos
k
iT(t)
=
ACOSU~
A
where
A=---
@
@
-
w2
1
LC
;
k
=
q/w
(3.3)
and the firing angle
a
=
R
-
a.

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