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72498_06b

72498_06b

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Published by Hai Hai
Computer Modelling of Electrical Power Systems
Computer Modelling of Electrical Power Systems

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Published by: Hai Hai on Mar 05, 2014
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6.10
SYNCHRONOUS MACHINE MODEL
[32]
amin
limit
195
A
Nor@
-
perating point
________________
Rectifier characteristic at
amin
I
-
I-
Current margin
I
I
>
Figure
6.35
Classic
V-I
converter characteristic simple control blocks or from specific HVDC control blocks. The d.c.-link controls provided are a gamma or extinction angle and current control with voltage-dependent current limits. Power control must be implemented from general-purpose control blocks. The general extinction angle and current controllers provided with PSCAD readily enable
the
implementation of the classic
V-I
characteristic for a d.c. link, illustrated in Figure
6.35.
General control modelling is made possible by the provision of a large number of control building blocks including integrators with limits, real pole,
PI
control, second- order complex pole, differential pole, derivative block, delay, limit, timer and ramp. The control blocks are interfaced to the electrical circuit by a variety of metering components and controlled sources.
A
comprehensive report on the control arrangements, strategies and parameters used
in
existing schemes has been prepared by CIGRE WG
14-02
[31].
All these facilities can easily be represented in the electromagnetic transient programs discussed
in
this chapter.
6.10
Synchronous Machine Model
[32]
The modelling of synchronous machines is based on Park’s transformation from phase to
dq0
quantities. With reference to Figure
6.36,
the formulation of the machine dynamics
in
phase components is as follows: where
Va
-
aRa ,b-ibRb) ,
-
cR,
=:
 I),
(6.79)
(6.80)
 
196
6
ELECTROMAGNETIC TRANSIENTS
Figure
6.36
Electrical machine windings
The inductances vary with
e t),
he angle between field winding
f
and winding
a
at time
t,
i.e.
Laa
=
La
+
Lm
CoS O),
Lbb
=
La
+
Lm
COS ~ ~
~/3)), 6.81)
Lc
=
La
+
Lm
CoS 2 6
-
4n/3)),
Lab
=
Lba
=
-M
-
Lm
COS 2 8
-
~/6)),
Lbc
=
Lcb
=
-Ms
-
Lm
COS(2(8
-
n/2)), 6.82)
L,,
=
L,,
=
-M
L,
Cos 2 e
+
n/2 ,
Laf
=
Lfa
=
Mf
cos e),
LCf
=
Lfc
=
Mf
Lbf
=
Lfb
=
Mf
cost8
-
~/3), 6.83)
-
4q3 .
In
dq0
axes and compact notation, the machine fluxes can be expressed as where Park’s transformation is:
I
I
2
2
6.84)
 
6.10
SYNCHRONOUS MACHINE MODEL
[32]
197
Expanding Equation
(6.84)
leads to
0
( )
=
La
+
Lmd
:]
3
+
[
Oh
6.85)
where and, similarly, for the field circuit:
@
=
[Lmdlid
+
Lmd
+
LfIi;.
Figure
6.37
depicts the equivalent circuit based on these equations. The procedure to interface the machine to the rest of the electrical network is
as
follows:
(1)
Assume
va,
Vb
v
and
vf
from previous time step and calculate
Vd,
vq,
vo
using transformation matrix
[T O)].
(2)
Choose
@d,
qq
(and
O
if
zero sequence is to be considered) as state variables
3)
These are integrated by numerical integration.
6.88)
Lf
Figure
6.37
Equivalent circuit
for
synchronous machine equations

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