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Mexican History 1860s

Mexican History 1860s

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Published by lzee

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Published by: lzee on Oct 15, 2009
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Mexican History 1860s-1930sWhen we last left Mexico, Maximilian had been executed, and Benito Juárez hadresumed his presidency.In 1871 he narrowly won reelection, only to die of a heart attack a year later.In 1877 Porfirio Díaz takes control of the country, which he will rule in one form oranother until 1911. His reign is a mixed bag. Mexico undergoes tremendouscommercial development, based largely on foreign investments [mostly Americanand British]. The Porfiriato, as his rule is called, turns Mexico City into a thriving city, but it is theupper class who benefits, not the poor majority. The inequalities of Mexico’s political and economic system breeds discontent, whicheventually leads to the Mexican Revolution.In 1910 Francisco Madero, a member of the educated liberal class, runs against Díazin the presidential elections and loses, despite promising democracy, agrarianreform [redistributing land among the poor/descendents of the original landowners], and workers’ rights.Madero publishes a book calling for free and democratic elections, and an end toDíaz’s regime. Even though 90% of the population is illiterate, the word spreadsand Madero becomes the leader of a popular revolution.20 Nov. 1910 The Mexican Revolution begins when Madero issues the Plan of SanLuis Potosi.1911 Diaz is forced to step aside and Madero is elected president, but conflict andviolence continue for a decade. Popular leaders like Emiliano Zapata in the southand Pancho Villa in the north emerge as the champions of the poor, and refuse tosubmit to presidential authority.1913 After a series of riots in the streets of Mexico City, Madero is overthrown byGeneral Victoriano Huerta, who declares himself dictator and has Madero killed.Supporters of Villa, Zapata and others force Huerta to resign in 1914. VenustianoCarranza [fancy first names were a requirement to lead Mexico back then!] takespower, but Villa and Zapata oppose him.Matters are further complicated by a series of invasions by the US, who are nervousabout what’s going on south of the border.General Álvaro Obregón defeats Villa in the north.1917 Mexico is recruited by Germany as an ally in World War I, but resists.Carranza oversees a new liberal constitution, although his actions grow increasinglyreactionary, culminating in the ambush and murder of Zapata in 1919 [although

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