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HFG 8th October 04[1]

HFG 8th October 04[1]

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Published by doorman46

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Published by: doorman46 on Mar 07, 2014
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial


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These rules are primarily intended for games between two players each controlling a complete army against its historical opponents using a minimum number of figures on a small table, but can also be used for larger or multi-player games featuring big armies split into wings and/or combinations of allied armies. There will also be more detailed companion sets, initially "Tricorne & Musket" covering !-!#, "$hako and %ayonet" for !#-', and "(epi & )ifle" for '-#*. The series+ inspirations are that no current rules can cope with more than one corps per player, that few of the many wars of the period ecept the  apoleonic and merican ivil 0ars are covered by eisting rule sets, the greater interest being shown in smaller model scales for which casualty removal is impractical, and the realisation that the methods of our 1uick play ancient set "2e %ellis nti1uitatis" can be etended further than originally supposed.My intent here is to provide the simplest possible set of wargames rules that retain the full feel and generalship re1uirements of th and #th century battle at army level. Those wishing for more specific  period teture with more detailed troop classification and attention paid to lower level formation and tactics will find these in the companion sets. 345+s simplicity makes it especially suitable as an introduction to wargaming the era for beginners and the young. t first sight, you may doubt the simplicity, which is more real than apparent, but bear in mind that while many troop types are catered for, no individual army will employ more than a few of them.The etended historical scope may cause raised eyebrows, but while many wars were between like systems, many others were not. Traditional musket lines fought 4rench columns and skirmishers, )ussian musket columns fought %ritish and 4rench Minie rifles in the rimea, 6russian 2reyse needle guns fought ustrian Minie in 77 but were outranged by 4rench hassepot and machine guns in !, smoothbore and rifled artillery were partnered in more than one war, while at sea ironclads fought unarmoured steamers and wooden sail.  evertheless, 345 is not intended for competition play unless with very rigid restrictions on period and  priority pairing of historical opponents. 8t is also unsuitable for battles involving limited numbers of troops, such as most of those of the merican 0ar of 8ndependence, nor for siege warfare.9ou should not assume that the differences between my perception of the realities of warfare during the era and received opinion are due to ignorance. $ome formerly respected secondary sources have recently been discredited by modern research. "The natomy of :ictory" and "%attle Tactics of apoleon and his ;nemies", both by %rent osworthy and "4orward into %attle" and ")ally <nce gain" by 6addy 5riffith  provide good analysis, and many useful books by th and #th century soldiers or theoreticians eist. opyright =c> 6hil %arker ##, ##!, ?, ??, ?@, ?*.
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These rules are based on detailed analysis of a number of key battles for which a good se1uence of events is available. This shows that, ecept for approach marches while out of contact, events are discrete initiatives and responses. This version is the result of testing against participantsE accounts of very many more battles8n 345, troops are assumed to attempt at all times to be in their preferred formation for their current situation. 0hether they achieved this is sometimes shown by their combat results. 4or eample, if infantry are destroyed by cavalry, they have probably failed to form s1uare in time or flinched from the charge. The other rule sets in the series include a variety of formations and formation changing. $kirmishers integral to units are assumed to be present even if not represented by figures. 8nfantry elements represent the main body, but the range at which they fire may assume that the fire is actually coming from skirmishers posted in front. The forward edge of an element base does not represent the position of the front rank. 8nstead, the combined base depth between figures of opposing elements in base contact represents point blank range.$hooting ranges are those at which substantial casualties could be epected. $hooting is assumed to also occur at up to double that range, but to only put a brake on enemy movement by forbidding march moves in non-tactical formations such as column of route. rtillery ranges are those considered practical by contemporaries and were often limited by considerations of visibility and long range shot dispersion. ombat results are matched to the range or those recorded during confrontations between troops of those types in similar situations in real battles. ombat factors have been set to produce historical effects in conFunction with the combat outcome table and should not be Fudged in isolation. <ne innovation is a G$pentH result for cavalry that used up their mountsE strength and the ridersE dash and cohesion but mostly survive, so that they are removed but do not count as lost. This encourages use rather than hoarding. t the other etreme, another innovation for the first time provides an ade1uate reason to reserve elite troops for the decisive moment of the battle.onventional rule sets give the player far too much information.  real general does not know that a unit has Fust lost a certain number of men, or even its total losses until net day, if then. 3owever, he will usually be in a position to see if a body is moving forward cheering, edging back looking over its collective shoulders, or has disintegrated. 0e provide players with that information and that only.<ur command and movement system is arbitrary, but its results are very similar to those from elaborate systems incorporating written orders, transmission by a limited number of messengers or signals, and then testing interpretation by the recipient. 8n any case, as lausewitI points out, confusion is the normal state in  battle, good staff work merely reducing it to a barely acceptable level. The function of the command system in a wargame differs from that in a real battle in that it is not used to enable the general to manoeuvre his troops at all, but to prevent him doing so too freelyJ This we achieve.$ome features of related rule sets are not applicable in this era and others were less or more important. 4or eample, night marches were plentiful, but night attacks were rare and usually restricted to localised assaults on strong points, which is surprising considering the need towards the end of the era to overcome the defensive power of longer ranged firearms. $uccessful attacks taking advantage of morning mist were less rare, but invariably due to coincidence rather than planning. 8ndeed, on one occasion, the attacker actually waited for an hour in the hope that the mist that was to give him victory would clearJ The effects of attacks also differ in this era, brigades attacked in both front and flank being more often repulsed or routed than destroyed. aval co-operation was more common than previously, especially in merica on coasts, great lakes and large rivers, though the feats of the 2anish ironclad )olf (rake against the 6russians also deserve a mention. <ff-table flank marches and decentralisation into semi-independent

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