# Welcome back

## Find a book, put up your feet, stay awhile

Sign in with Facebook

Sorry, we are unable to log you in via Facebook at this time. Please try again later.

or

Welcome to Scribd, the world's digital library. Read, publish, and share books and documents. See more

Download

Standard view

Full view

of .

Look up keyword

Like this

Share on social networks

0Activity

×

0 of .

Results for: No results containing your search query

P. 1

Why a Minimal Length follows from the Extended Relativity Principle in Clifford SpacesRatings: (0)|Views: 2|Likes: 0

Published by Kathryn Wilson

15 pages, submitted to Mod. Phys. Letters A

15 pages, submitted to Mod. Phys. Letters A

See more

See less

https://www.scribd.com/doc/211328624/Why-a-Minimal-Length-follows-from-the-Extended-Relativity-Principle-in-Clifford-Spaces

03/08/2014

text

original

Why a Minimal Length follows from theExtended Relativity Principle in CliﬀordSpaces

Carlos Castro

∗

March , 2014

Center for Theoretical Studies of Physical Systems, Clark Atlanta University, Atlanta;perelmanc@hotmail.com

Abstract

Recently, novel physical consequences of the Extended Relativity Theory in

C

-spaces (Cliﬀord spaces) were explored and which provided a very diﬀerent physicalexplanation of the phenomenon of “relativity of locality” than the one described bythe Doubly Special Relativity (DSR) framework. An elegant

nonlinear

momentum-addition law was derived that tackled the “soccer-ball” problem in DSR. Generalizedphoton dispersion relations allowed also for energy-dependent speeds of propagationwhile still

retaining

the Lorentz symmetry in ordinary spacetimes, but breakingthe

extended

Lorentz symmetry in

C

-spaces. This does

not

occur in DSR norin other approaches, like the presence of quantum spacetime foam. In this workwe show why a

minimal

length (say the Planck scale) follows naturally from theExtended Relativity principle in Cliﬀord Spaces. Our argument relies entirely onthe Physics behind the extended notion of Lorentz transformations in

C

-space,and

does not

invoke quantum gravity arguments, nor quantum group deformationsof Lorentz/Poincare algebras, nor other prior arguments displayed in the Physicsliterature. The Extended Relativity Theory in Cliﬀord

Phase

Spaces requires alsothe introduction of a

maximal

scale which can be identiﬁed with the Hubble scale.It is found also that

C

-space physics favors a choice of signature (

−

,

+

,

+

,....,

+).

Keywords : Cliﬀord algebras; Extended Relativity in Cliﬀord Spaces; Doubly SpecialRelativity; Quantum Cliﬀord-Hopf algebras.

∗

Dedicated to the memory of Rachael Bowers

1

1 Introduction

1.1 Novel Consequences of the Extended Relativity Theory inCliﬀord Spaces

In the past years, the Extended Relativity Theory in

C

-spaces (Cliﬀord spaces) andCliﬀord-Phase spaces were developed [1], [2]. The Extended Relativity theory in Cliﬀord-spaces (C-spaces) is a natural extension of the ordinary Relativity theory whose general-ized coordinates are Cliﬀord polyvector-valued quantities which incorporate the lines, ar-eas, volumes, and hyper-volumes degrees of freedom associated with the collective dynam-ics of particles, strings, membranes, p-branes (closed p-branes) moving in a D-dimensionaltarget spacetime background. C-space Relativity permits to study the dynamics of all(closed) p-branes, for diﬀerent values of p, on a uniﬁed footing. Our theory has 2 fun-damental parameters : the speed of a light

c

and a length scale which can be set equalto the Planck length. The role of “photons” in

C

-space is played by

tensionless

branes.An extensive review of the Extended Relativity Theory in Cliﬀord spaces can be foundin [1]. The polyvector valued coordinates

x

µ

,x

µ

1

µ

2

,x

µ

1

µ

2

µ

3

,...

are now linked to the basisvectors generators

γ

µ

, bi-vectors generators

γ

µ

∧

γ

ν

, tri-vectors generators

γ

µ

1

∧

γ

µ

2

∧

γ

µ

3

, ... of the Cliﬀord algebra, including the Cliﬀord algebra unit element(associated to a scalar coordinate). These polyvector valued coordinates can be inter-preted as the quenched-degrees of freedom of an ensemble of

p

-loops associated with thedynamics of closed

p

-branes, for

p

= 0

,

1

,

2

,...,D

−

1, embedded in a target

D

-dimensionalspacetime background.The

C

-space polyvector-valued momentum is deﬁned as

P

=

d

X

/d

Σ where

X

is theCliﬀord-valued coordinate corresponding to the

Cl

(1

,

3) algebra in four-dimensions, forexample,

X

=

s

1

+

x

µ

γ

µ

+

x

µν

γ

µ

∧

γ

ν

+

x

µνρ

γ

µ

∧

γ

ν

∧

γ

ρ

+

x

µνρτ

γ

µ

∧

γ

ν

∧

γ

ρ

∧

γ

τ

(1)where we have omitted combinatorial numerical factors for convenience in the expansion(1). It can be generalized to any dimensions, including

D

= 0. The component

s

is theCliﬀord scalar component of the polyvector-valued coordinate and

d

Σ is the inﬁnitesimal

C

-space proper “time” interval which is

invariant

under

Cl

(1

,

3) transformations whichare the Cliﬀord-algebra extensions of the

SO

(1

,

3) Lorentz transformations [1]. One shouldemphasize that

d

Σ, which is given by the square root of the quadratic interval in

C

-space(

d

Σ)

2

= (

ds

)

2

+

dx

µ

dx

µ

+

dx

µν

dx

µν

+

...

(2)is

not

equal to the proper time Lorentz-invariant interval

dτ

in ordinary spacetime (

dτ

)

2

=

g

µν

dx

µ

dx

ν

=

dx

µ

dx

µ

. In order to match units in all terms of eqs-(1,2) suitable powersof a length scale (say Planck scale) must be introduced. For convenience purposes itis can be set to unity. For extensive details of the generalized Lorentz transformations(poly-rotations) in ﬂat

C

-spaces and references we refer to [1].2

Let us now consider a basis in

C

-space given by

E

A

=

γ, γ

µ

, γ

µ

∧

γ

ν

, γ

µ

∧

γ

ν

∧

γ

ρ

, ...

(3)where

γ

is the unit element of the Cliﬀord algebra that we label as

1

from now on. In (3)when one writes an

r

-vector basis

γ

µ

1

∧

γ

µ

2

∧

...

∧

γ

µ

r

we take the indices in ”lexicographical”order so that

µ

1

< µ

2

< .... < µ

r

. An element of

C

-space is a Cliﬀord number, called also

Polyvector

or

Cliﬀord aggregate

which we now write in the form

X

=

X

A

E

A

=

s

1

+

x

µ

γ

µ

+

x

µν

γ

µ

∧

γ

ν

+

...

(4)A

C

-space is parametrized not only by 1-vector coordinates

x

µ

but also by the 2-vector coordinates

x

µν

, 3-vector coordinates

x

µνα

, ..., called also

holographic coordinates

,since they describe the holographic projections of 1-loops, 2-loops, 3-loops,..., onto thecoordinate planes . By

p

-loop we mean a closed

p

-brane; in particular, a 1-loop is closedstring. In order to avoid using the powers of the Planck scale length parameter

L

p

in theexpansion of the polyvector

X

(in order to match units) we can set it to unity to simplifymatters. In a

flat C

-space the basis vectors

E

A

,E

A

are

constants

. In a

curved C

-spacethis is no longer true. Each

E

A

,E

A

is a function of the

C

-space coordinates

X

A

=

{

s, x

µ

, x

µ

1

µ

2

, ....., x

µ

1

µ

2

.....µ

D

}

(5)which include scalar, vector, bivector,...,

p

-vector,... coordinates in the underlying

D

-dimbase spacetime and whose corresponding

C

-space is 2

D

-dimensional since the Cliﬀordalgebra in

D

-dim is 2

D

-dimensional.Deﬁning

E

A

≡

γ

A

,

J

AB

≡

12 (

γ

A

⊗

γ

B

−

γ

B

⊗

γ

A

)

,

J

A

≡

12 (

γ

A

⊗

1

−

1

⊗

γ

A

)

= 0 (6)for arbitrary polyvector valued indices

A,B,....

and after using the relations[

γ

A

⊗

γ

B

, γ

C

⊗

γ

D

] = 12 [

γ

A

, γ

C

]

⊗{

γ

B

, γ

D

}

+ 12

{

γ

A

, γ

C

}⊗

[

γ

B

, γ

D

] (7)

{

γ

A

⊗

γ

B

, γ

C

⊗

γ

D

}

= 12 [

γ

A

, γ

C

]

⊗

[

γ

B

, γ

D

] + 12

{

γ

A

, γ

C

}⊗{

γ

B

, γ

D

}

(8)yields, for example, the commutator relation involving the boost generator

J

01

(alongthe

X

1

direction) and the area-boost generator

J

0 12

(along the bivector

X

12

direction)in

C

-space[

J

0 12

,

J

01

] = 14 [

γ

0

⊗

γ

12

−

γ

12

⊗

γ

0

, γ

01

⊗

1

−

1

⊗

γ

01

] =

−

18

g

11

(

γ

20

⊗

γ

0

−

γ

0

⊗

γ

20

)

−

18

g

00

(

γ

1

⊗

γ

12

−

γ

12

⊗

γ

1

) (9)The (anti) commutators of all the gamma generators are explicitly given in the Appendix.One requires to use the expressions in the Appendix in order to arrive at the last termsof eq-(9). Hence, from the deﬁnitions in eqs-(6) one learns that3

- Read and print without ads
- Download to keep your version
- Edit, email or read offline

© Copyright 2015 Scribd Inc.

Language:

Choose the language in which you want to experience Scribd:

Sign in with Facebook

Sorry, we are unable to log you in via Facebook at this time. Please try again later.

or

Password Reset Email Sent

Join with Facebook

Sorry, we are unable to log you in via Facebook at this time. Please try again later.

or

By joining, you agree to our

read free for one month

Personalized recommendationsbased on books you love

Syncing across all your devices

Join with Facebook

or Join with EmailSorry, we are unable to log you in via Facebook at this time. Please try again later.

Already a member? Sign in.

By joining, you agree to our

to download

Personalized recommendationsbased on books you love

Syncing across all your devices

Continue with Facebook

Sign inJoin with emailSorry, we are unable to log you in via Facebook at this time. Please try again later.

By joining, you agree to our

Are you sure?

This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?

CANCEL

OK

You've been reading!

NO, THANKS

OK

scribd