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AP World Notes Ch. 4

AP World Notes Ch. 4

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Published by: underdog530 on Oct 16, 2009
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Chapter 4Classical Civilization in the Mediterranean: Greece and RomeI. IntroductionA. Mediterranean culture1. Greece slowed Persian empire, set up a few colonies, but…2. Rome known for empire3. New institutions/values that would remain in western culture4. “our own” Classical pasta. U.S. Constitution b. buildings in the U.S.c. founders of the philosophical traditiond. Socratic methodB. Greco-Roman history1. more dynamic, but less successful* We can clearly recognize the connections and our own debt without adhering to thenotion that the Mediterranean world somehow dominated the classical period.2. Complicated – passed through two centersa. Rome preserved many of Greek achievementsC. Rome vs. Greece1. Mighty empire vs. inept/Greek city-states2. Mastered engineering vs. scientific thought3. western Europe – Greco Roman vs. Eastern Europe – Greek influence4. Shareda. political ideas b. common religionc. artistic stylesd. economic structuresII. The Persian TraditionA. 550 BCE Cyrus the Great – massive Persian Empire across Middle East1. Tolerant of local customs2. Advanced iron technology3. Zoroastrianism4. artistic lifestyle5. Conquered by Alexander the Great6. Persian language and culture survived into the 20
th
centuryIII. Patters of Greek and Roman HistoryA. Greece1. Crete – showed Egyptian influence by 2000a. Monumental architecture2. 1400 Mycenae – kingdom Trojan War a. Indo-Europeans destroyed until 800 – Dark Ages3. Rise from 800-600 strong city-statesa. tyrant or aristocratic council b. divided by mountains1. unified government difficult2. trade developed
 
c. written language came from Phoenician alphabetd. regular celebrations1. athletic competitions – Olympic gamese. Sparta/Athens rose to the top1. Sparta – military tradition dominated slves2. Athens – commercial state, slaves, artistic/intellectual leadership3.4. 5
th
century – Democracy in Athensa. Pericles - most famous political figure1. No official position, but influence/negotiation b. each citizen participatedc. eventually Spartan/Athenian war weakens both sides1. Peloponnesian Wars – weakened Greecea. Philip II of Macedon came down and took over  b. Alexander the Great then kept going to Persia1. 13 years of conquests – 332. Successor kingdoms ruled for centuries3. Hellenistic period – Greek art/culture merges4. Trade flourished5. Scientific centers – Alexandria6. Greece decline, but legacy carries onB. Rome1. Started under control of monarchy in 800 – defeated in 5092. Roman republic expandeda. Always fear of invaders, keep extending boundaries b. Across Sicily, conflict with Carthage1. Leads to Punic Wars – 3 of thema. Bloody defeat by Hannibal – through Gaul b. 3
rd
Punic War – salted fields – agriculture3. Republic replaced by powerful generalsa. Caesar first to “Cross the Rubicon” – 45 BCE b. August Caesar takes over in 27 BCE – after rivalry following assassinat1. Pax Romana – basic structure for Roman Empirea. Until 180 CE Marcus Aurelius – peace to Medit. World b. Empire expanded to Britainc. Gradual fall until 476 when invaders took over 1. economic deterioration – trade loss2. population loss – declining birth rates3. government less effective – couldn’t take care of empire4. unable to take over more land to finance empire5. too spread out – undefendable4. Diocletian Reforms5. Constantine – 313 adopts Christianity6. After the fall1. Governments became local in Western Europe – can’t control/order 2. Roman armies needed foreign recruits – why are we fighting again?IV. Greek and Roman Political InstitutionsA. Introduction1. Politics crucial – polis – Greek city-state – similar to China
 
a. “Good life” included political service, military2. Did not try to administer local regions3. Unlike China, never had single set of political institutions/bureaucracy/emp4. Like India diverse formsa. Monarchy – not preferred – tried to abolish b. Individual strongman – tyranny – quite common – some effectiveB. Greece – demos – the people1. General assemblies – all vote – direct democracy – not a republic2. Executive officers chosen by lot – similar to jury duty3. ½ citizens – slave/foreigners – women excluded > 25% participate4. Negatives of democracy – Peloponnesian Warsa. Lower class citizens want power – recommend stupid military choices5. Most preferred – aristocratic assemblies – aristocracy – rule of the bestC. Rome1. Constitution – relied on aristocracy – election of magistrates2. Senate – held executive offices – two consuls shared power – public speakinga. Dictator during emergencies3. Ample political theory – Cicero main guya. Political ethics b. Duties of citizensc. incorruptible serviced. key political skills – oratorye. Diff. than China – not so much on hierarchy, obedience, bureaucracy4. Roman Empire – preserved Senate – relatively useless5. Local autonomy prevailed – accept times like Jewish rebellion 63 CEa. tolerance local customs, religion6. Strong military organization7. Well-crafted laws – Twelve Tables 450 BCE – restrain upper classa. Rules, not personal whim, should govern people b. regulated property, commercec. similar to Chinese bureaucratic structure8. Focused on law courts, military forcea. Not so much on commerce, but… b. Rome…roads, harbors – military transport, commercec. Public baths, stadiums – “bread and circuses”9. Supported official religion – civic festivals, but not imposeda. Religions tolerated as long as didn’t conflict with state1. Problem w/ Christianity, state not firstD. Key elements1. Localism, political focus, diversity of political systems, aristocracy, law2. Lacked specific individual rights, instability showed system was flawedV. Religion and CultureA. Religion1. Christianity spread, but not a product of Christian/Roman Culture2. Greco-Roman religion – nature > gods and goddessesa. Different names/interacted w/ mortals/whims/soap opera b. Patrons of nature/human activitiesc. god stories used to illustrate human passions/foibles – literature

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