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Deleuze: Foldings, or the Inside of Thought

Deleuze: Foldings, or the Inside of Thought

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314
James
Schmidt
and Thomas
E.
\,\Iartenbcrg
93. Foucault Reader, 38.
94. Hacking, "Self_Improvement," 238.
95. Foucault Rpadcr, 48.
96. Ibid., 50.MCtl
"Critique
of
Impure
Reason," 463.
97.
1 C
ar
lY,
,
. 1
N'
tz·
heCruelty"
Polit-
'1'11 .
"C"al'nl\"lis
of
AtroCIty: FOllcau
t,
1
le
sc,
'
98. See
James
tV
1
Cl,
,< ,
ical71/Cory
18 (1990): 478. .. . . TI
'IS
E. vVartcnberg,
The
Forms
oj
power: From Dmlll-
99.
,For
a~dlSc~r.SSlOn,'.
sce(Ph~~~~iphia:
Temple
University Press), 1990.
na/IOIt
fa
Trall.'!J0nlla
/Oil '
"
9°8
100. I-lacking, "Self-Improvement,
_~'J
.
"Critique
as a
Philosophic
Ethos," 421 (italics in
original).
101.
BernsteIn,
.
. J
G
/"
d'
am
der
kloml
da
Lll-
9
Cl .
l' Carve
Versw:lw iiber verschw(
enl~
,esellS
all
t.:
:
1 110_.
,Ins
tan
,
'.
179
9)
re
finted
in
Dlcter
Henne
1,
C(.,
cralur, und
ficm
gescUs~!wftITlr:WII.~~clWl~i~ra~i:
(Fr!kfurt:
Suhrkamp,1967),
134-
Kalil,
CClllz.,
Rchberg:Uber/Com
1L11(
138.1I
l
"On the
Common
Saying:
'This
May
be
Tnle
in Theory,
1
O~
lmmanue
'\.illl,
. .
67
"ION
t
Apply
in
Practice," in
Poiiliw[
1Vnlmgs,
.
But
toes
0
"
9
104.
Hacking,
"Self_Improvement,
_:J
. (C
b'
1 .
C'lmbridge
University
a
O'Neill
Constructions
oj
Rl!aSOIl
,am
rIC
ge.
-'<
'h'"
PI
~~.
1~)o8~)a)
58-59.
For
a discussion
of
the antifoundationalism ot Kant
s
et
lCS,
less, . , ,see
pp.
18-19,56,64.
106.107.
Clifiql/.l!
oJJudgmt:nl
§40.
"The Return
of
Morality,"
in
Foucault Live, 330.
13
Foldings,
or
the Inside
of
Thought
(Subjectivation)
Gilles
Deleuze
,Vhat
happened
duringthe
fairly
long
silence
following
The History
a/Sexuality?
Perhaps
Foucault
fell
slightly
uneasy
about
the
book:
had
he not
trapped
himself within
the concept
of
power
relations?
Hehimself
put
fonvard
the
following
objection: "That's
just
like you,always
with
the
same
incajJacit,.)1
to
cross
the
lhw,
to
pass
over to
the
other
side
...
it
is always
the
same choice,
for the
side
of
power,
for
what
power
says
or of
what
it
causes
to
be
said."l
And no
doubt
hisown reply
was
that
"the
most
intense
point
of
lives,
the
one
where
their
energy
is
concentrated,
is
precisely
where
they
clash
with
power,struggle with
it, endeavor
to utilize its
forces
or
to escape
iL"I
traps."
He might
equally
have
added
that the
diHi.lse
centers
of
power
donot
exist
without
points
of
resistance
that are
in smne
way
primary;
andthat
power
does
not
take
life as its
objective
withoutrevealing
or
giving rise
to
a life
that
resists power;
and
finally
that the
force
of
theoutside
continues
La
disrupt the
diagrams
andturn them
upsidedown.
Butwhat happens,onthe
other
hand, if the
transversal
relations
of
resistance
continue
to
become
resu'atified,
and
to
encounter
or
even
construct
knots
of
power? Already
the
ultimatefailure
of
the
prison
movement, after
1970,
had saddenedFoucault,on
top
of
which
other
events,
on
a
world
scale,
must
have
saddened
him evenmore.
If
power
is
constitutive
of
truth, how can
we
conceive
of
a
"power
of
truth" which would
no longer bethe truth
of
power,
a
truth that
would release
transversal lines
of
resistance
and not
inle
gral lines
of
power? How
can
we "cross
the
line"? A.nd,
if
we
must
 
316
Gilles Deleuzc
attain
a life
that
is
the power
of
the outside, what
tells us
that
this
outside
is
not
a terrifying void
and
that
this life,
which
seems to
put
up
a resistance, is
not
just
the simple distribution within the void
of
"slow,
partial
and
progressive" deaths? We
can
no
longer
even say
thatdeathtransforms
life
into
destiny,
an
"indivisible
and
decisive"
event,
but
rather that death
becomes multiplied
and
differentiatedin
order
to bestow
on
life
theparticular
features,
and
consequentlythe
truths,
which
life believes arise
from
resisting
death.What
re-mains,
then, if
not
to pass
through
all
these deathspreceding thegreat
limit
of
death
itself,
deaths
which
even
afterwards
continue?
Life
henceforth
consists only
of
taking
one's
place,
or
every
place,
inthe cortege
of
a
"One
dies."
It
is
in
this
sense
that
Bichatbroke
with
the
classical
conception
of
death,
as
a decisive
moment
or indivisible event, and broke ,vith it
in two ways, simultaneously presenting
death
as
being
coextensive
with life
and
as
something made up
of
a multiplicity
of
partial
and
particular
deaths.
When Foucault
analyzes Bichat's theories, his
tonedemonstrates
sufficientiy
that
he
is
concerned
with
something
other
than an epistemological
analysis::!
he
is
concerned
,vith a conception
of
death, and few
IllCll
more than Foucault died in a
way
comlnen-
surate
with
their conception
of
death. This
force
oflife
that
belonged
to
Foucault
was always
thought through and
lived
out
as
a
multiple
death
in
the
manner
of
Bichat.
vVhat
remains, then, except an anonymous life that shows up onlywhen it clashes with power, argues with
it,
exchanges "brief and
strident
words,"
and
then
fades
back intothe night,what Foucault
called
"the
life
of
infamous men," whom
he
asked us to
admire
by
virtue
of
"their misfortune, rage
or
uncertain
madness"?3
Strangely,
implausibly,
it
is
this "infamy"
which
he
claimed for
himself:
"My
point
of
departure
was
those
sorts
of
particles
endowed
with
anen-
ergy
that
is
all
the greater for their being
small
and
difficult to
spot."Thisculminatedin
The
Use
of
Pleasure's
searing
phrase: "to
get
free
of
oneself.
"'\
]fw
History
of
Sexuality
explicitly closes
on
a
doubt.
If
at
the
end
of
it Foucault finds hinlself in an impasse, this
is
not
because
of
hisconception
of
pmver but rather because
he
found the impasse to
be
where power itself places us,
in
both
our
lives
and
our
thoughts,
as
we run up against
it
in
our
smallest truths. This
could
be
resolved
317
Foldings, or the Inside
of Thought
only
if
the outside were caught
up
in a
movement
that
would snatchit
away
from
tile void
and
pull
it
back from death. This would be
likea
new
axis,
different fromthe
axes
of
both
Imowledge
and
power.
Could
tillS axls.be
the place where
a sense
of
serenity
wouldbe
finally
attamed
and
hfe truly
affinned? In
any
case, it is
not
an
axis tilat
annuls
all
others
but one
tilat was already
working
at the same
timeas
the
otilers,
and
prevented
tilem
from
closing
on
the
impasse.
Perhaps
this
third
axis was
presentfrom
tile
beginninginFoucault
Uust as
power
was
present from
tile
beginningin
knowledge).
But itcouldemerge only
by
assuming
a
certain
distance,
and
so
being ableto
CIrcle
back
on
the
other
two.
Foucault
felt it necessary to
carry
out
a
generalreshufflein
order
to unravel this
path
which
was so
tangled
up
inthe others that
it
remained hidden: it
is
this
recentering
which
Foucault puts
forward
inthe general introduction
to
The
Use
of
Pleasure.
But
how was tilis new
dimension present from
the
beginning?
Up
untIl now, we have
encountered
three dimensions: the relations
which have
been
formed
or
formalized
along certain strata
(Knowl-
edge); the
relations between
forces to
be found
at
the
level
of
tile
diagram
(Power);
and
the relation
with
the
outside,
that
absoluterelation,
as
Blanchot
says,
which
is
also a
nonrelation (Thought).
Does
this mean that there
is
no
inside? Foucault continually submitsinteriority
to
a radical critique. But
is
there
an inside that
lies deeper
than any intem,al
world,
just
as
the outside is farther
away
than anyexternal world?
The
outside
is
not
a fixed limit but a moving matter
animated
by peristaltic
movement,
folds
and
foldings
that
together
make up
an
inside: they are
not
something other than the outside,
but
precisely
theinside
of
he
outside.
The Order
of
Things
developed
this theme:
if
thought comes from outside, and remains attached
to
the outside, how
come
the outside does
not
flood into the inside
as
the elements
that
thoughtdoes
notandcannot
think of?
The
~ n -
thought
is
therefore
not
external
to
thoughtbut
lies
at
its very
heart,
as
that
impossibility
of
tilinking
which
doubles
or
hollows
out
the
outside,5
The
classical
age
had
already
stated that
tilere was
an
inside
of
thought, the
unthought,
when it invoked the
finite,
the differeutorders
of
infinity.
And from the
nineteenth
century on it
is
more
the
dimensions
of
finitude
which
fold
the outside
and
constitute
a
 
318
Gilles
Deleuzc
,
'tl
d
a"~
l'nto
itself" an inside
to life,
labor
and
"d
1'"
"densIty
WI
1
r~.u'
1
ept
1,
a ,
'b.
d
d
if
only
to
sleep,
but
converse
Y
I
guage in whlch
man
IS
em
ec e ,
'k'
an,
.'
'.'
bedded
in man
"as a living
beIng,
a
wor Ingwblch
IS
also llselt
em
I'
t"6
Either
it
is
the
fold
of
theinfinite,individual
or
a
speaktn,~>
S~s)J~~
finitudewhich
curve
theoutside
andor
the
cons~ant
fol~S
l;f"
1irth
oj
the
Clinic
had
already shown howconstItute
t
1e lnSl e.
,"
to
the
surface
but
equally
how
patho
the
clinic
brought
tile
body
up
d
d'
t~
this
body
deep
foldings
,
l'
ubsequently Intro uce In
10gICa
anatomy
s ,
.1
Id tion
of
interiority
but
constitutedwhich
did
not
reSUSCItate t
le
0
n~
~
, I
th
inside
of
this
outsIde,'
Insteac.
~
new
,f
of
the
out"iide:
in
all his
workFoucault
The
mSlde as
an
opera
IOn
of an
inside
which
is
merely
the
fold
of
seems
haunted
by tIllS
theme
f
I
lin
of
the
sea,
On
the subjectthe outside,
as
if
the
ShIp
were
l
a
.~
c
ut~o
sea
in
his
boat,
Foucault
of
theRenaissance
madman
w 10
IS
P
wrote:
, . 1
exteriorand
inversely,
' , a
prisoner
in
the
he
is
put
in the
lD
tenor
of
t
1e.
t'
f
routes'
bound
lastat
the
infinite
f
I
'the
freest the
openes
0 . .
['
I
midst
0 W
1at
1S
'j
.
)'
'lhu;("
that
is
the
prisoner
0 -
t
le
dH
's the P'lssenger
'')(11
Lxa
I.
'"
,
crossroa
s,
e
1 "
passagc,R
I'
th'm
this
madman
himself.
As
Blanchot
Thou
g
f
lF
lt
h~s
nl~'
~,~~:re~:~~~es
t;le
outside,
that
is,
constitutesit
in
an
says
0
oncau,
.
"'-I
.,
f
xpectation
or
exceptlOll. '
intenonty.
o.
e.
I'
I
has
always
haunted
Foucault
is
that
a
rather
the
theme
w llC
1,
' ,
of
tl:~
doubl~,
But
th,e
dOU~~rii~r7z:t~~,;
~;~~~;t~~~lS~~eth;t
i;;t~':~r~
on
the contrary,
It
IS
an
1I
d
bi'
f
the Other
It
is
not
a
re
doubling
of
the
One,
but
a
re
on
mg
0
f
the
Diff~rent.
It
is
not
roduetionof
the Same,
but
a
repetItIon
o.
".
nee
P
'f.
"I"
but
somethingthat
places
In
Immane
the emanatlOn
0
,In , .
It
is
never
the other
who
is a
double
an
always
other or
a NOl;-sdf.
self
tInt
lives
me
as
the
doubleof
the
, I d
bl'111g
process
It
IS
a , ,m
t
le
oU,'
1t
'I
I
find
the
other
m
other:
I
do
not
encounter
In~self
on
~
le
OU
SIC
e,
Other
the Distant,me
("it
is
always
concerned
wIth shOWIng
how the
_
'-I'
'
, I
tl
S'lme")
10
It
resembles
exactly t
le
ll1vagma
IS
also
the
Near
al1C
le
~
,
'f
hi'
' 1 sewing' twist
lion
of
a tissue
in
elnbryology,
or
the act
0
(OU
mg
11'
, ,
fold
stop
and
so
on,
, I"
d
It'
its
Inost paradoxica
pages,
The Archaeology
oj
[(noH/hI
ge
S
10wec ,
11
'..
.
..
f
other
and
above all
how
one
how
one
phrase
was
the
repetItIOn
0
an
,
319
Foldings,
or
the
Inside
ofThought
statement repeated
or
doubled
"something
else"
that
was
barely
dis
tinguishablefrom it
(the
transmission
of
letters
on
thekeyboard,AZERT),
Equally,
the books
on
power showed howthestratified
£or111s
repeated
relations between
forces
that
were barely
distinguish
able from
one another, and
how history
was
the
doubling
of
an
emergence,This
permanent
theme in
Foucault
had
already
been
analysed
in
depth in
Raymond Roussel.
For
whatRaymond
Roussel
had
discovered
was
the
phrase
of
the
oUL'iide, its
repetition
in
a
second
phrase,
the
Ininuscule
diflerence
between the
two
(the
"snag"
[I
accra,]
),
and
the
twistiug
and
doubling
from
one
to the
other.
The
snag
is
no
longer
the
accident
of
the
tissue
but
the new rule
on
the
basis OfV·lhich
the
external
tissue is twisted,
invaginated
and
doubled.
The
"facultative"
rule,
or
thetransmission
of
chance,
a
dice-throw.
They
are,
says
Foucault, games
of
repetition,
of
difference,
and of
the doubling that
"links
them,"This
is
not
the onlytimeFoucault presents in
a
literary
and
hu
morous
way
what could be
demonstrated
by
epistemology
or
linguistics,
which
areboth
serious
disciplines.
Raymond Roussel
has
knitted
or
sewn
together
all
the lueanings
of
the word
dOll-blufe,
in
order
toshow
how
the inside
was always
Il,e
folding
of
a
presupposed
out
side,ll
And
Roussel's last
method,
the proliferation
of
parentheses
inside
one another,
multiplies
the
foldings
within
the sentence. This
--
is why
Foucault'sbook
on
Roussel
is
ilnportant,
and
no
doubt
the
path
it
traces is
itselfdouble,This does
not
at
all
mean that
the
pri
macycanbe
reversed:
theinside
will always
be
the
doubling
oj
the
outside,But
it
does
mean that
either,
like Roussel recklessly
searchingfor
death,
we
wantto
undo the doubling
anel
pull
away
the
folels"with a
studied
gesture,"
in
order
toreach theoutside
and
its "stiflinghollowness";
or
like Leiris,
who
is
more
wise
and prudent
butnone
the
less
in
another
senseincredibly audacious,
-we
follow
the
folds,
reinforce the doublings
frmTI
snag
to
snag,
andsurround
ourselves
with
foldings
that
form
an
"absolutememory," in
order
La
make theoutside into
a
vital,
recurring
elementY-'!
As
The ilislOl")'
oj
fHadl/l!ss
put
it: to
be
put
in the
interior
of
the exterior,
and
inversely.
PerhapsFoucault has
always
oscillatedbetween the
two
forms
of
the double,already characterized
at
this
early
stage
as
the choice
betl-veen
death
or
IT1Cmory.
Perhaps
he
chose death,
like Roussel,
but
not
withouthaving passed
through
the
detours
or
foldings
of
memory,

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