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Quqing 1990 Tunnelling and Underground Space Technology

Quqing 1990 Tunnelling and Underground Space Technology

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Construction of Underground Works inShanghai, P.R.C.
Gao Quqing
AbatraceFor nearly thirty years, Shanghai has been construct-ing underground works designed to improve the city’s infrastrrcc-ture.
ofprojects were undertaken
hield tunnellingmethod in order to determine whether this method could be usedsuccessfully in Shanghai’s geology, which is characterized by siltand silty orpuddly clay. These undergroundprojects have includedsubway tunnels, sewage and water supply tunnels, road tunnels,and offshore discharge tunnels.
paper describes eight subsur-face projects in Shanghai that have used the shield tunnellingmethod successfully.R&um6-Pendant environ trente ans, Shanghaii a construit de.9ouvmges souterrains darts k but d’ameliorer l’infrastructum de lavilk. De nombmuxprojets
ntrepris en utilisant la m&hook h&ran de fqon a &terminer si cette m&hoaizpouvait &re utilisee avecsucces compte tenu de la geologk de Shanghai, qui est caracteriseepar de la vase ou o!.e hrgik boueuse.
en soutermins ontinclus des tunnel de metro, le tout h l’egout et des tunnelsd’alimentation en eau, des tunnels routkr, et o!e o!&ersement aularge. Cepapier d4cri.t huitprojets en soutermin hShangha~qui ontutilW avec succ&3 a m&ho& a ecmn.
anghai is the biggest city inChina, with a population of 12
Intheearly1960s,Shanghai began to construct a number ofunhground works to improve the city’sir&astru&m. The underground workscompleted thus far include two underwa-terroadtaumelshnkingtheeastandwestbankaoftheHuangpuRiver,andof&hore&charge, intake and cooling water tun-nels for steel and chemical complexes inthe suburbs of ShanghaiThe Shanghai metro was under con-struction for many years. A section ofmetro tunnel was constructedin 1966-67. In 1981-84, experimental tunnelswere constructed to determine the fea-sibility of shield use in Shanghai’s soil.Based on the successful construction ofthe experimental tunnels, the planlayout of the No. 1 metro line and thedesign of metro stations was approvedby the government, and three stationsare now under construction.Also under construction are sewagetunnel and water supply tunnelprojects, which are being constructedby the pipe-jacking technique.
Geology of Shanghai
The geology of Shanghai consistsmainly of alluvial deposits, comprisingfour layers:Presentaddress:Prof. Gao Quqing,South- west Jiaotong University, Jiu Li Di,Chengdu, Sichuan, 610031, People’s Re-public of China.1. Yellowish-brown silty clay, 2 to 4mthick, with groundwater 0.7 to 1.5 mbelow the ground surface.2. Grey silt, up to 20 m thick,interbedded with layers of fine sandand sandy clay. It has a high watercontent, high void ratio, high com-pressibility, and a permeability of ap-proximately 10%&ec-l.3. Grey siltJpuddly clay, 20-24 mthick, interbedded with layers of siltand fine sand. This layer is character-ized by a high void ratio, low shearstrength, and high permeability. Whenthe void ratio exceeds 1.3, the watercontent exceeds the liquid limit. Thispuddly clay forms the main layer ofShanghai ground that undergroundworks and metro tunnels pass through.4. Dark green silty clay, up to 8 mthick, characterized by a low
ratio,low water content, high shear strength,and low permeability.
Case Histories of UndergroundWorks in Shanghai
From the early 1960s to 1984,9 kmof underground works were excavatedby shield in Shanghai. Three km wereexcavated with the aid of compressedair; 1.5 km, with the aid of dewateringwith eductor wells; and the remaining4.5 km, by blind or semi-blind shields.Theremainderofthispaperpresentsbrief case histories of eight shield-driven tunnels in Shanghai.Table 1 lists statistics for the eightshield-driven tunnel constructed inShanghai that are discussed in thispaper. Table 2 gives typical soil prop-erties for these tunnels.I.
Trial Tunnel (1963-64)
The purpose of this tunnel was todetermine the feasibility of shield usein the Shanghai soil. The 68-m-longtunnel (4.2.-m-outer-diameter) wasconstructed by the traditional shieldmethod. The tunnel was excavated intwo stages: the 6rst stage, in silt; andthe second stage, in soft clay (see Fig.1.). An intermediate shaft was pro-vided for transferring the shield fivmone stage to the other. A conventionalshield with face jacks (Greatheadshield) was adopted. Dewatering andcompressed air measures were adoptedin different sections along the
ascertain the effectiveness of thesemeasures in Shanghai ground.Conventional single-shell, bolted,precast concrete segments were usedfor the lining. For waterproofing, amixture of coal tar and
epoxy resin
wasused to filI the joints.The trial construction was carriedout with good results. No seriousproblems occurred
2. Subway Tunnel (1966-67)In
the early 196Os, when ShanghaiwasSrstconsideringbuildinga subwaysystem for city passenger transporta-tion, two 600-m-long, single-trackparallel tunnels were excavated. Amesh shield was used for the excava-tion. In this method, a steel mesh357
03 i
Over- load 
OFS (=d!) 
Table 2. Comparative characteristics of shield-driven tunnels constructed in Shangshai since 1965.
Name of
TunnelTrial Tunnel
SubwayTunnel(section 1)
Outer Dia. ofShield
4.2 m
5.8 m.
10.3 m3.6 mType
of Shield
Open-faceMeshMesh-blindMesh-blindOffshore 4.3 m Mesh-blind
Tunnel4.3 m
Cooling WaterDischargeTunnelDischarge
4.3 m6.3 mHydro-mechanicalHydro-mechanicalMesh
Length of
68 m
2 x 599 m1324 m
928 m
2 x 314135565
2000-8000 T.700 T.
Type ofErector
Hollow shaftHollow shaftRing gear0-4% 1400-2600 T. Ring gear1000500-60015-20%15-50%
0-1100Ring gear
Ring gear
Hollow shaft
frame is mounted on the cutting edgeof he shield; hen the shield s ackedforward, the ground oozes into the
shield through the mesh opening. Whenthe shield stops, it stabilizes the work-ing face.The first length of the t-nnel wasaided by dewatering measures (see Fig.2). Dewatering was very effective inthe silt stratum, and the shield couldeven be used in the soft clay stratumwithout the need for compressed air.However, in order to gain more experi-ence, most of the t-nnel was drivenwith a bulkhead in front under com-pressed air. This t- -nelllng experiencewas very successful.The lining utilized five single-shell,precast concrete segments: two ordi-nary segments, two top segments, andone key. For waterproofing, a mixtureof coal tar and epoxy resin was used tofill the joints.In 1964, the construction wasstopped due to a lack of funds.
3. Dapulu Road Tunnel (1966-67)
The 2.7-ban-long ])apuln Road Tun-nel
was the first underwater tlmnelacross the Hwangpu River. The road is7.07 m wide to accommodate double-lane traffic. A longitudinal profile isshown in Figure 3. The approaches atboth ends of the tnnnel were built bythe cut-and-cover or caisson method.The center portion of he t, nnel, underthe river, was 1320 m long, with a 10-
--~Sltl: TOp, ye¢!~ .......Pudd y
Figure 1. Longitudinal profile and geological features of the trial tunnel built inShanghai.
m outer diameter; it was constructedby shield with an adjustable b-lkhead,so that it could be used as a blind, semi-blind, or mesh shield. The shield diam-eter was 10.3 m.At the first stage of shield excava-tion, a mesh was installed. ARer ex-cavating a few hundred meters, thet~mnel reached the soft clay strata, andthe bnlkhead was totally closed (i.e.,blind shield). The ground under theriver bed heaved up to 3 m when theshield passed through it.During excavation, maint~inln g theshield in line and grade was difficultbecause it had a tendency to rise and tomove backward when it stopped. Tohelp adjust for this movement and tocontrol the direction of the shieldmovement, the ground around theshield was allowed to ooze in. After theshield reached the other bank, the finaldeviation was estlmAted to be 2 cm.After the shield reached the east bank,it was driven with the b-llchead re-moved (i.e., mesh shield), aided by de-watering or compressed air.
segments, including five ordinary
segments, two top segments, and key
segment for each ring. The width of ringwas 900 ram; each segment weighed 5 T.and was 600 mm thick Epoxy resinmortar was used for waterproofing.Volume 5, Number 4, 1990 TUNN~.T.r~O AND UNDERGROUNDSPACETECHNOLOGY 59

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