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9477679 Role of Tourism Sector in Climate Change

9477679 Role of Tourism Sector in Climate Change

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Published by Raniri Munawar
Nama: Raniri Munawar, NIM: 054226, MPP-A
Memang tak dapat dipungkiri akhir-akhir ini bumi menunjukan perubahan, iklim global telah berubah dibandingkan dengan era sebelumnya dan di pastikan akan berlanjut ke abad 21 dan seterusnya. Panel terhadap perubahan iklim menunjukan suhu global rata-rata meningkat kira-kira 0.76 C antara
1850-1899 dan 2001-2005 dan telah menyimpulkan bahwa sebagian besar
perubahan temperatur rata-rata global meningkat karena pertengahan abad ke-20 semakin banyak pemanasan gas di atmosfir. Dan begitu pun dengan industri pariwisata dalam dekade ke depan, perubahan iklim akan memainkan peran yang sangat penting dalam manajemen dan pengembangan pariwisata, dengan hubungan dekat nya kepada lingkungan. Pariwisata dianggap sebagai sektor iklim sensitif. Perubahan iklim akan benar-benar nyata untuk sektor pariwisata yang di adaptasi oleh semua stakeholder pariwisata.
Nama: Raniri Munawar, NIM: 054226, MPP-A
Memang tak dapat dipungkiri akhir-akhir ini bumi menunjukan perubahan, iklim global telah berubah dibandingkan dengan era sebelumnya dan di pastikan akan berlanjut ke abad 21 dan seterusnya. Panel terhadap perubahan iklim menunjukan suhu global rata-rata meningkat kira-kira 0.76 C antara
1850-1899 dan 2001-2005 dan telah menyimpulkan bahwa sebagian besar
perubahan temperatur rata-rata global meningkat karena pertengahan abad ke-20 semakin banyak pemanasan gas di atmosfir. Dan begitu pun dengan industri pariwisata dalam dekade ke depan, perubahan iklim akan memainkan peran yang sangat penting dalam manajemen dan pengembangan pariwisata, dengan hubungan dekat nya kepada lingkungan. Pariwisata dianggap sebagai sektor iklim sensitif. Perubahan iklim akan benar-benar nyata untuk sektor pariwisata yang di adaptasi oleh semua stakeholder pariwisata.

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Published by: Raniri Munawar on Oct 17, 2009
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

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03/31/2011

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Friday, 07 November 2008 00:00There could be four major mitigation strategies to address greenhouse gasemissions from tourism- 1) reducing energy use, 2) improving energy efficiency,3) increasing the use of renewable energy, and 4) sequestering carbon throughsinks. 
IntroductionUndeniable evidences throughout the globe indicate that global climatehas changed compared to the pre-industrial era and is expected tocontinue the trend through 21st century and beyond. The Inter-governmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC)1 documented that globalmean temperature has increased approximately 0.76
C between1850-1899 and 2001-2005 and it has concluded that most of theobserved changes in global average temperatures since the mid-20thcentury is
'very likely' 
the result of human activities that are increasinggreenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere.
As a consequence, we observe various manifestations of climate change includingocean warming, continental-average temperatures, temperature extremes andwind patterns. Widespread decreases in glaciers and ice caps and warming oceansurface temperature have contributed to sea level rise of 1.8 mm per year from1961 to 2003, and approximately 3.1 mm per year from 1993 to 2003.The IPCC has projected that the pace of climate change is to accelerate withcontinued greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions at or above the current rates. IPCCbest estimate suggested that globally averaged surface temperatures will rise by1.8
C to 4.0
C by the end of the 21st century. Even with a stabilizedatmospheric concentration of GHGs at the current level, the earth would continueto warm as a result of past GHG emissions as well as the thermal inertia of theoceans. Future changes in temperatures and other important features of climate willmanifest themselves in different fashions across various regions of the globe. It is
 
likely that the tropical cyclones (typhoons and hurricanes) will become moresevere, with greater wind speeds and heavier precipitation. This will be associatedwith continuing increase of tropical sea surface temperatures. Extra-tropicalstorm tracks are projected to shift towards the pole, with consequent changes inwind, precipitation and temperature patterns. The decreases in snow cover arealso projected to continue. The environmental and economic risks associated withpredictions for climate change are considerable. The gravity of the situation hasresulted in various recent international policy debates. The IPCC has come outwith firm conclusions that climate change would hinder the ability of severalnations to achieve sustainable development. The Stern Review on the Economicsof Climate Change found that the present cost reducing GHG emissions is muchsmaller than the future costs of economic and social disruption due tounmitigated climate change. Every country as well as economic sectors will haveto strive with the challenges of climate change through adaptation and mitigation.Tourism is no exception and in the decades ahead, climate change will play apivotal role in tourism development and management. With its close links to theenvironment, tourism is considered to be a highly climate-sensitive sector. Theregional manifestations of climate change will be highly relevant for tourismsector that demands adaptation by all major tourism stakeholders. In fact, it isnot a remote future for the tourism sector since varied impacts of a changingclimate are already evident at destinations around the world. As a flip side of the above story, tourism sector itself is a major contributorclimate change through GHG emissions, especially, from the transport andaccommodation of tourists. Tourism sector must play a proactive role to reduceits GHG emissions significantly in harmony with the 'Vienna Climate Change Talks2007' which recognized that global emissions of GHG need to peak in the next10-15 years and then be reduced to very low levels, well below half of levels in2000 by mid-century. The major challenge ahead of tourism sector is to meet theinternational sustainable development agenda along with managing increasedenergy use and GHG emissions from massive growth in activities projected for thesector. The concern of the tourism community regarding the challenge of climate changehas visibly increased over the last five years. The World Tourism Organization(UNWTO) and other partner organizations convened the
First International Conference on Climate Change and Tourism
in Djerba, Tunisia in 2003. The
Djerba Declaration
recognized the complex inter-linkages between the tourismsector and climate change and established a framework for on adaptation andmitigation. A number of individual tourism industry associations and businesseshave also shown great concerns by voluntarily adopting GHG emission reductiontargets, engaging in public education campaigns on climate change andsupporting government climate change legislation.
 
 
Direct impacts
 Climate determines seasonality in tourism demand and influences the operatingcosts, such as heating-cooling, snowmaking, irrigation, food and water supply andthe likes. Thus, changes in the length and quality of climate-dependent tourismseasons (i.e., sun-and-sea or winter sports holidays) could have considerableimplications for competitive relationships between destinations and, therefore, theprofitability of tourism enterprises. As a result, the competitive positions of somepopular holiday areas are anticipated to decline, whereas other areas areexpected to improve. The Intergovernmental Panel for Climate Change (IPCC) has concluded thatchanges in a number of weather extremes are probable as a result of projectedclimate change. This includes higher maximum temperature and more hot days,greater storm intensity and peak winds, more intense precipitation and longerand more severe droughts in many areas. These changes will have direct bearingon tourism industry through increased infrastructure damage, additionalemergency preparedness requirements, higher operating expenses and businessinterruptions. 
Indirect impacts
 Since environmental conditions are critical resources for tourism, a wide-range of environmental changes due to climate change will have severe adverse impactson tourism. Changes in water availability, loss of biodiversity, reduced landscapeaesthetic, increased natural hazards, coastal erosion and inundation, damage toinfrastructure along with increasing incidence of vector-borne diseases will allimpact tourism to varying degrees. Mountain regions and coastal destinations areconsidered particularly sensitive to climate-induced environmental change, as arenature-based tourism market segments. Climate change related security riskshave been identified in a number of regions where tourism is highly important tolocal-national economies. Tourists, particularly international tourists, are averse topolitical instability and social unrest. Reduction in tourism demand will affectmany economies in form of reduction in income (Gross Domestic Product). Thismay result into social unrest amongst the people regarding distribution of wealthwhich will lead to further decline in tourism demand for the destination.Tourists have great adaptive capacity with relative freedom to avoid destinationsimpacted by climate change or shifting the timing of travel to avoid unfavourableclimate conditions. Suppliers of tourism services and tourism operators at specificdestinations have less adaptive capacity. Large tour operators, who do not own

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