Climate determines seasonality in tourism demand and influences the operatingcosts, such as heating-cooling, snowmaking, irrigation, food and water supply andthe likes. Thus, changes in the length and quality of climate-dependent tourismseasons (i.e., sun-and-sea or winter sports holidays) could have considerableimplications for competitive relationships between destinations and, therefore, theprofitability of tourism enterprises. As a result, the competitive positions of somepopular holiday areas are anticipated to decline, whereas other areas areexpected to improve. The Intergovernmental Panel for Climate Change (IPCC) has concluded thatchanges in a number of weather extremes are probable as a result of projectedclimate change. This includes higher maximum temperature and more hot days,greater storm intensity and peak winds, more intense precipitation and longerand more severe droughts in many areas. These changes will have direct bearingon tourism industry through increased infrastructure damage, additionalemergency preparedness requirements, higher operating expenses and businessinterruptions.
Since environmental conditions are critical resources for tourism, a wide-range of environmental changes due to climate change will have severe adverse impactson tourism. Changes in water availability, loss of biodiversity, reduced landscapeaesthetic, increased natural hazards, coastal erosion and inundation, damage toinfrastructure along with increasing incidence of vector-borne diseases will allimpact tourism to varying degrees. Mountain regions and coastal destinations areconsidered particularly sensitive to climate-induced environmental change, as arenature-based tourism market segments. Climate change related security riskshave been identified in a number of regions where tourism is highly important tolocal-national economies. Tourists, particularly international tourists, are averse topolitical instability and social unrest. Reduction in tourism demand will affectmany economies in form of reduction in income (Gross Domestic Product). Thismay result into social unrest amongst the people regarding distribution of wealthwhich will lead to further decline in tourism demand for the destination.Tourists have great adaptive capacity with relative freedom to avoid destinationsimpacted by climate change or shifting the timing of travel to avoid unfavourableclimate conditions. Suppliers of tourism services and tourism operators at specificdestinations have less adaptive capacity. Large tour operators, who do not own