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Table Of Contents

1 What G¨odel’s First Theorem Says
1.1 Incompleteness and basic arithmetic
1.2 Why it matters
1.3 What’s next?
2 The Idea of an Axiomatized Formal Theory
2.1 Formalization as an ideal
2.2 Formal axiomatized theories
2.3 Decidability
2.4 Enumerable sets
2.6 Three simple results
2.7 Negation complete theories are decidable
3 Capturing Numerical Properties
3.1 Remarks on notation
Standard arithmetical languages
3.2 Standard arithmetical languages
Expressing numerical properties and relations
3.3 Expressing numerical properties and relations
3.4 Case-by-case capturing
3.5 A note on our jargon
4 Sufficiently Strong Arithmetics
4.1 The idea of a ‘sufficiently strong’ theory
4.2 An undecidability theorem
An incompleteness theorem
4.3 An incompleteness theorem
But what have we really shown?
4.4 But what have we really shown?
Arithmetics and Primitive Recursion
5 Four Formalized Arithmetics
5.1 BA – Baby Arithmetic
5.2 Q – Robinson Arithmetic
Capturing properties and relations in Q
5.3 Capturing properties and relations in Q
5.4 An aside: introducing ‘<’ and ‘≤’ into Q
5.5 IO – Arithmetic with induction for quantifier-free formulae
PA – First-order Peano Arithmetic
5.6 PA – First-order Peano Arithmetic
5.7 Is PA Consistent?
5.8 More theories
6 Primitive Recursive Functions
6.1 Introducing p.r. functions
Defining the p.r. functions more carefully
6.2 Defining the p.r. functions more carefully
The p.r. functions are computable
6.3 The p.r. functions are computable
6.4 Not all computable functions are p.r
6.5 The idea of p.r. adequacy
7 More on Functions, Properties and Relations
7.1 Extensionality
7.2 Characteristic functions
Capturing functions
7.3 Capturing functions
7.4 ‘Capturing as a function’
8 P.R. Adequate Arithmetics
8.1 β-functions
8.2 PA is p.r. adequate
8.3 Q is p.r. adequate too
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Kurt Gödel's Theorems And Theories Of Arithmetic (2004)

Kurt Gödel's Theorems And Theories Of Arithmetic (2004)

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Published by Egil Skallagrimsson

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Published by: Egil Skallagrimsson on Oct 17, 2009
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11/12/2012

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