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Glossary of Maritime Law en-fr-De-sp

Glossary of Maritime Law en-fr-De-sp

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Glossary of Maritime Law Terms, 2nd Ed., 2004
Glossary of Maritime Law Terms, 2nd Ed., 2004 McGill University
 
A
A.A.A.
- The American Arbitration Association. Corporate Headquarters and Customer Service Centre, Email: Websitemail@adr.or. !nternational Center "or #ispute $esolution, Email: mailto:Appel%@adr.or Website: http:&&'''.adr.or& 
A.A.A.
 - See
 (
infra
).
A!andonment
*+r.:
délaissement 
*Span.:
abandono
*!tal.:
abbandono
*r.:
 Abandonnierung 
/
 Aufgabe eines Rechtsanspruches
 - Abandonment is the ivin up b0 the insured o" the proprietar0 rihts in insured propert0 to the under'riter in consideration "or pa0ment o" a
 (
infra
) or an
 (
infra
). See
(1.2.) sects. 34-35/ see also
 (
infra
). See Tetle0, !nt6l %. 7 A. 8., 95 at  p.349. Abandonment (
abandon
) is also the ancient principle o" a shipo'ner havin responsibilit0 onl0 up to the value o" the ship and
 (
infra
) (but calculated a"ter the
 (
infra
)). The  principle 'as "ound in the 4;9< Shipo'ners6 8imitation Convention and is still "ound in the 1.S.
Shipowners' Limitation of Liability Act 
, 4=>4, <3 1.S. Code 5>>(a) ("ormerl0 <3 1.S. Code App?. 4=5). See Tetle0, !nt6l. C. o" 8., 4;;< at pp. >4->44, >4->4=/ Tetle0,
 M.L.C.
, 9 Ed., 4;;= at  pp. 4;-44/ Tetle0,
 Int'l. M  A. L.
, 95 at pp. 9-94.
A!!ott, ('arles )Lord Tenterden*
 -
 A !reatise on the Law relati"e to Merchant Ships and Seamen
, 4 Ed., 4=9, 8ondon and 4< Ed.(. Aspinall 7 H.S. %oore, eds.), 4;4, Sha', 8ondon.
A!ecassis, +..
 -
 Marine #il $ollution% the International Legal Regime relating to the $re"ention of Marine&based #il $ollution
, 4;3, 1niversit0 o" Cambride #epartment o" 8and Econom0, Cambride.
-A!s de droit-
- *Span.: 
abuso de derecho
 *!tal.: 
abuso di diritto
 *r.: 
 Rechtsmibrauch
- A
 principle o" abuse o" riht due to a "larant act o" a creditor or the possessor o" a thin. See Tetle0, !nt6l. C. o" 8., 4;;< at p. 3>/ Tetle0,
 M.L.C.
, 9 Ed., 4;;= at Chap. 9=, pp. 4>5-4=;/ Tetle0,
 Int'l. M.  A. L.
, 95 at p. ><.
Acevedo, (.. / +as, A.+.
 - #erecho del Transporte (9 vols.), 99, Editorial 8ibromar 8tda., Balparaiso, Chile.
"Acta jure gestionis"
- Acts b0 riht o" manaement. Activities o" a commercial nature carried out b0 a "orein State or one o" its subdivisions or aencies, 'hich acts are
not
 immune "rom the
 (
infra
) and process o" local courts under the modern doctrine o" restrictive
 (
infra
). See Tetle0,
 M.L.C.
, 9 Ed., 4;;= at pp. 4435 and 44=</ Tetle0,
 Int'l. M.  A. L.
, 95 at p. <<4. 4
 
"Acta jure imperii"
- Acts b0 riht o" dominion. Activities o" a overnmental or public nature carried out b0 a "orein State or one o" its subdivisions, 'hich quali"0 "or State immunit0 under the modern doctrine o" restrictive
 (
infra
). See Tetle0,
 M.L.C.
, 9 Ed., 4;;= at pp. 4435 and 44=</ Tetle0,
 Int'l. M.  A. L.
, 95 at p. <<4.
Action
in personam
 - See
,
infra
.
Action
in rem
 - See
,
infra
.
Actal falt or 1rivity
*+r.: 
 faute ou complicité réelle
 *Span.:
 falta o complicidad real 
 *!tal.:
colpa o conni"en(a reale
 *r.: 
tats)chliches *erschulden
 - A "ault0 act or omission o" a part0, or his no'lede o" or complicit0 'ith the "ault0 act or omission o" another "or 'hose conduct he is responsible. 1nder the
 and
 (
infra
), the
 (
infra
) 'ishin to avail himsel" o" the e?ception "rom liabilit0 provided b0 art. <(9)(q) must prove that the loss or damae has occurred 'ithout his actual "ault or privit0 or the "ault or nelect o" his servants or aents. See also 
 (see
infra
) s. <(9)(q) (<3 1.S. Code App?. 45<). (Tetle0,
 M.C.C.
, 5 Ed., 4;== at pp. >4>->9<.) Similarl0, under the !nternational Convention $elatin to the 8imitation o" the 8iabilit0 o" D'ners o" Seaoin Ships o" Dct. 9, 4;> (the
,
infra
) art. 4(4), and national leislation based on that Convention, the o'ner o" a seaoin ship ma0 limit his liabilit0 in respect o" certain claims, unless the occurrence ivin rise to the claim resulted "rom *his actual "ault or privit0. The equivalent term in the American Shipo'ners6 8imitation o" 8iabilit0 Act o" 4=>4 is 
(
infra
). See <3 1.S. Code 5>>(b) ("ormerl0 <3 1.S. Code 4=5(a). See Tetle0, !nt6l C. o" 8., 4;;< at pp. >44, >4/ Tetle0, !nt6l. %. 7 A. 8., 95 at  pp. 9=<-9=3.
Actal Total Loss
*+r.: 
 perte totale réelle
 or 
 perte totale et réelle
 *Span.: 
 pérdida total real 
 *!tal.: 
 perdita totale reale
 *r.: 
tats)chlicher !otalschaden
 - An actual total loss occurs 'hen:(4) the insured propert0 is completel0 destro0ed/ or (9) the assured is irretrievabl0 deprived o" the insured propert0/ or (5) caro chanes in character so that it is no loner the thin that 'as insured (e.. cement becomes concrete)/ or (<) a ship is posted missin at 8lo0d6s, in 'hich case both the ship and its caro are deemed to be an actual total loss.See
 (1.2.) sect. >. See Tetle0,
 Int'l. M.  A. L.
, 95 at pp. 33-33.
-Ad alorem-
- accordin to value. +or e?ample, an
ad "alorem
 "reiht rate is one based on the value o" the caro, rather than on its 'eiht or its cubic measurement.
Admiralty and Maritime Law Gide
 - An American 'ebsite "eaturin annotated lins to 1.S. admiralt0 case diests, opinions and international maritime conventions. Websit: http:&&'''.admiralt0la'uide.com& 
AdmiraltyLaw.com
- A Canadian maritime and admiralt0 la' 'ebsite, 'ith man0 lins to other sites, maintained b0 Chris iaschi o" iaschi 7 %arolis, Bancouver, ritish Columbia, Canada. Website: http:&&'''.admiralt0la'.com&. 
-A+M"5ALT;<56=7-
- An Email subscription list "or pro"essors o" admiralt0 and maritime la' and others interested in the discipline, includin practicin la'0ers and those stud0in or  participatin in shipborne transportation and commerce, the la' o" the sea, the e?ploitation or conservation o" marine resources, and marine archaeolo0. Contact: ohn Faul ones, The T.C. Williams School o" 8a', 1niversit0 o" $ichmond, $ichmond, Birinia 9545, 1.S.A. Tel.: (=<) 9=;-=944/ "a?: (=<) 9=;-=3=5. Email:  GGones@richmond.edu. 9
 
Admiralty 7olicitors Gro1
- The Cit0 o" 8ondon Admiralt0 Solicitors roup (enerall0 no'n as the Admiralt0 Solicitors roup) is an oraniation devoted to promotin hih standards in the  practice o" maritime la' in 8ondon and to promotin the arbitration and mediation o" maritime la' disputes there. !t also publishes various standard-"orm documents used b0 maritime la'  practitioners, particularl0 in collision and salvae cases. Website: http:&&'''.admiralt0solicitorsroup.com&main.htm.
Affreig'tment
*+r.:
affr+tement 
*Span.:
 fletamento
*!tal.:
noleggio
 *r.:
Seefrachtgesch)ft 
 - !n 
 
, a""reihtment re"ers to a contract "or the charterin o" a ship or some principal part o" it. !n Enland, the term is used to re"er to the contract "or the carriae o" oods in a ship, either under a
 (
infra
) or a
 (
infra
). (Tetle0,
 Int'l C. of L.
, 4;;< at p. 9<= note / Tetle0, !nt6l %. 7 A. 8., 95 at p. 49= note 9=).
Allision
- Allision is a primaril0 American term "or
 (
infra
) o" a ship 'ith a "i?ed obGect, not a ship. See
 In re Superior Constr. Co.
, <<> +.5d 455< at 4553, note 4, 93 A%C 45= at p. 45;, note 4 (44 Cir. 93).
AMA(
- See
 (
infra
).
AM(
- American %aritime Cases, altimore, %ar0land. %aritime la' decisions o" American "ederal and state courts since 4;95. An e?ample o" a citation "or a #istrict Court is 4; A%C 495 (S.#. +la. 4;3;), "or the Court o" Appeals is 4;=3 A%C 445 (9 Cir. 4;=>) and "or the 1.S. Supreme Court is 4;>5 A%C 494 (1.S.). Address: %r. %art0 2appert, American %aritime Cases, !nc., 53 Clipper %ill $oad, Suite 9=, altimore, %#, 94944, 1.S.A. Tel: (<4)-9<5-9<93/ +a?: (<4)-9<5-9<9. Email: amcrptr@mindsprin.com. Website: http:&&'''.americanmaritimecases.com&.
Am!rose, (. / Ma>well, ?.
,
 London Maritime Arbitration
, 9 Ed., 99, 88F, 8ondon.
American Maritime (ases
 - See
 (
 supra
).
American 5le
- The eneral rule o" American practice 'hich precludes inclusion o" attorne06s "ees in court costs. The American $ule dates bac to the American $evolution, 'hen, in the name o" basic "reedom, the revolutionaries reacted aainst the ritish practice o" includin enerous  barrister6s and solicitor6s "ees in court costs. See Tetle0,
 M.L.C.
, 9 Ed., 4;;= at pp. 95<-95>.
-Amia!les com1ositers-
*Span.: 
amigables componedores
 *!tal.: 
compositori amiche"oli
 *r.: 
Schiedsrichter 
 - Clauses in
 (
infra
) areements allo'in the arbitrators to act as
amiables compositeurs
permit the arbitrators to decide the dispute accordinto the leal  principles the0 believe to be Gust, 'ithout bein limited to an0 particular national la'. The resultin
 are "requentl0 based on
 (
infra
) or on the
 (
infra
), the arbitrators bein authoried, as 
amiables compositeurs
, to disreard leal technicalities and strict constructions 'hich the0 'ould be required to appl0 in their decisions i" the arbitration areement contained no
amiable compositeur 
clause.
 Amiable compositeur 
clauses in arbitration areements are e?pressl0 permitted b0 art. 9=(5) o" the
 (
infra
), as 'ell as in both domestic and international arbitration b0 the Ie' Code o" Civil Frocedure (+rance), arts. 4<< and 4<;>, and the JuKbec Code o" Civil Frocedure, art. ;<<.4. !n
, conversel0, equit0 clauses o" an0 sort are o"ten rearded as suspect. See Tetle0,
 Int'l. C. of L.
, 4;;< at pp. 43, <4</ Tetle0, The eneral %aritime 8a' - The 8e? %aritima (4;;<) 9 S0racuse . !nt. 8. 7 Comm. 4>-4<> at pp. 45-45=/ reprinted in *4;;3 ET8 <3;->3 at pp. <;;->.
Anand, 5.<.
 -
#rigin and ,e"elopment of the Law of the Sea
, 4;=9, IiGho"", The Haue and oston. 5

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