This dissertation asks how civic institutions (the city council and the academic gymnasium),socio-economic structures (civic and private patronage) and religion and civic ideals in the cityof Danzig shaped creative thought about the science of the stars during the sixteenth andseventeenth centuries. Reciprocally, it looks at how the use of scientific knowledge createddistinctive representations of the city both as it appeared to its own citizens and as it was presentedto others outside of the city walls. By employing a variety of sources, including Latin texts, printedprognostications, astrological and astronomical pamphlets, handwritten marginalia, Germanpoetry, artwork (both printed illustrations and freestanding pieces), travelers' accounts, personalcorrespondence and funeral sermons, I explore how those who lived in Danzig represented their observations of the stars. While concentrating on Danzig, the dissertation compares and contrastsexperiences in Danzig to other places. Examples of comparisons are those in chapters 1 and4, which compare systems of courtly patronage found in other European cities with systems of civic and private patronage found in Danzig. Chapter 2 considers the books of Peter Crüger (1580-1639), professor of mathematics and poetry in the Danzig gymnasium, and his concernto remain within the bounds of correct Lutheran doctrine. He wrote at a time when Lutheransheld powerful positions within city government and in the administration of the gymnasium.In chapter 3, I focus on the writings of Peter Crüger's pupil, Andreas Gryphius (1616-1664).Gryphius later became a celebrated German poet and statesman. Understanding his stay inDanzig and his studies under Crüger, I argue, are vital to understanding his poetry, plays andprose. Chapters 5 through 7 concentrate on another of Crüger's students, namely, JohannesHevelius (1611-1687). Chapter 5 studies Hevelius's first major publication, Selenographia (1647)and argues that Hevelius's concern to honor his city was intimately connected to the creationand final production of Selenographia. In Chapter 6, I examine the frontispiece to Hevelius's
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posthumously published Uranographia (1690). The frontispiece is an allegorical depiction of the"Last Judgment" of Hevelius and his astronomical works. Hevelius's "Last Judgment" resemblesin form and content other judgment scene paintings in Danzig. The final chapter compares andcontrasts the lives of Hevelius and Tycho Brahe (1546-1601) using a sermon given at Hevelius'sfuneral as the primary text of analysis
UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA, SAN DIEGO
THE SCIENCE OF THE STARS IN DANZIG FROM RHETICUS TO HEVELIUS
A dissertation submitted in partial satisfaction of the requirements for the degree Doctor of Philosophy in History (Science Studies) by Derek Jensen Committee in charge: Professor Robert S. Westman, Chair Professor Luce Giard Professor John Marino Professor Naomi Oreskes Professor Donald Rutherford 2006