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1.4.1 The cost models
1.4.2 The optimization models
2.1 Costs associated with highway transportation
2.1.1 Planning, design, and administrative costs
2.1.2 Construction costs
2.1.3 Maintenance costs
2.1.4 User costs
2.1.5 Social and environmental costs
2.3.1 Traffic considerations
2.3.2 Horizontal alignment
2.3.3 Vertical alignment
2.4 Models for optimizing horizontal alignment
2.4.1 Calculus of variations
2.4.2 Network optimization
2.4.3 Dynamic programming
2.5 Models for optimizing vertical alignment
2.5.1 Enumeration
2.5.2 Dynamic programming
2.5.3 Linear programming
2.5.4 Numerical search
2.6.1 Dynamic programming
2.6.2 Numerical search
2.7 Summary
3.1 Basic definitions and theorems of highway alignments
3.2 The properties of models for optimizing alignments
Modeling the optimization problem for non- backtracking horizontal alignments
4.1 Data format for describing the region of interest
4.2 Representation of alignment
4.3 An overview of the cost function
4.4 Location-dependent costs
4.4.1 Location-dependent costs of tangent sections
4.4.2 Location-dependent costs of circular curves
4.5 Length-dependent costs
4.6 User costs
4.6.1 Vehicle operating costs
4.6.2 Travel time costs
4.6.3 Accident costs
4.7 Final model and its properties
5.1 Genetic encoding
5.2 Initial population
5.3 Fitness function
5.4 Selection/replacement
5.5 Genetic operators
5.5.1 Uniform mutation
5.5.2 Straight mutation
5.5.3 Non-uniform mutation
5.5.4 Whole non-uniform mutation
5.5.5 Simple crossover
5.5.6 Two-point crossover
5.5.7 Arithmetic crossover
5.5.8 Heuristic crossover
5.6 Convergence
5.7 Other issues
6.1 Representation of alignment
6.2 Cost function
6.2.1 Location-dependent cost
6.2.2 Length-dependent cost
6.2.3 User costs
6.3 Final model and its properties
6.4 Genetic encoding and initial population
6.5 Genetic operators
6.5.1 Uniform mutation
6.5.2 Straight mutation
6.5.3 Non-uniform mutation
6.5.4 Whole non-uniform mutation
6.5.5 Simple crossover
6.5.6 Two-point crossover
6.5.7 Arithmetic crossover
6.5.8 Heuristic crossover
6.6 An example
7.1 Representation of alignment
7.2 Cost function
7.2.1 Earthwork cost
7.2.2 User costs
7.3 Final model and its properties
7.4 Genetic encoding and initial population
7.5 Genetic operators
7.5.1 Uniform mutation
7.5.2 Straight mutation
7.5.3 Non-uniform mutation
7.5.4 Whole non-uniform mutation
7.5.5 Simple crossover
7.5.6 Two-point crossover
7.5.7 Arithmetic crossover
7.5.8 Heuristic crossover
8.1 Representation of alignment
8.2 Cost function
8.2.1 Location-dependent cost
8.2.2 Length-dependent cost
8.2.3 Earthwork cost
8.2.4 User costs
8.3 Final model and its properties
8.4 Genetic encoding and initial population
8.5 Genetic operators
8.5.1 Uniform mutation
8.5.2 Straight mutation
8.5.3 Non-uniform mutation
8.5.4 Whole non-uniform mutation
8.5.5 Simple crossover
8.5.6 Two-point crossover
8.5.7 Arithmetic crossover
8.5.8 Heuristic crossover
9.1 Case study 1
9.1.1 Problem description
9.1.2 Solution and goodness test
9.1.3 Sensitivity analysis of genetic operators
9.2 Case study 2
9.2.1 Problem description
9.2.2 Comparisons of solutions found by Models 3 and 4
9.3 Case study 3
9.3.1 Problem description
9.3.2 Comparisons of solutions found by Models 3 and 4
9.3.3 Goodness test for the best solution found by Model 4
10.1 An overview of MDProperty View
10.2 Other GIS database and maps
10.3 Environmental issues
10.4 Developing solution algorithms with GIS
10.4.1 Obtaining input data and maps
10.4.2 Preprocessing input data and maps
10.4.3 Developing algorithms based on spatial relations
10.4.4 Integrating GIS with genetic algorithms
10.4.5 Compactness analysis
10.5 Case studies with real maps using GIS
10.5.1 Baltimore county example
10.5.2 Talbot county example
10.5.3 Cecil county example
10.5.4 Brookeville bypass project example
10.5.5 Effects of map size
10.5.6 Significantly different alignments
11.1 Road structures in highway engineering
11.3 Characteristics of road structures on highways
11.3.2 Small bridge characteristics
11.3.4 Small tunnel characteristics
11.3.5 Characteristics of interchanges
12.1 Estimating highway earthwork cross sectional areas
12.1.1 Current methods for estimating cross sectional areas
12.1.2 Methodology for estimating cross section areas
12.1.3 Developing new methods for finding ground elevations
12.1.4 Example study
12.2 Modeling intersection cost functions sensitive to alignments
12.2.1 Methodology for intersection construction cost modeling
12.2.2 Pavement cost estimation
12.2.3 Earthwork boundaries and cost estimation
12.2.4 Right-of-way boundaries and cost estimation
12.2.5 An example study for right-of-way cost estimation
12.2.6 Intersection accident costs
12.2.7 Intersection delay costs
12.2.8 Intersection vehicle fuel costs
12.3 Development of bridge cost functions
12.5 Interchange cost functions
12.6 Cost functions for short tunnels
13.2 Algorithm for combining functions of bridges and tunnels
14.1 Motivation for local intersection optimization
14.2 Methods for local intersection optimization
14.4 Example study
14.4.1 Example study based on an artificial area
14.4.2 Example study based on a real GIS map
15.3 Case studies with intersections and other structures
15.4 Two-stage alignment optimization
15.5 Sensitivity analysis of critical parameters
A.2 How do genetic algorithms work?
A.2.1 Genetic encoding
A.2.2 Fitness function
A.2.3 Selection
A.2.4 Genetic operators
A.2.5 Replacement
A.2.6 Convergence
A.3 Why do genetic algorithms work?
A.4 Comparisons with other optimization techniques
1 Bibliography
1 Index
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05/26/2014

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