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A Guide of Refinery Process

A Guide of Refinery Process

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Published by: jobsinabroad_ig on Oct 19, 2009
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Refinery ProcessPrepared By- Tendering Estimation Dept. Essar Constructions India Ltd.
Executive Summary
The refining process depends on the chemical processes of distillation (separating liquidsby their different boiling points) and catalysis (which speeds up reaction rates), and usesthe principles of chemical equilibria. Chemical equilibrium exists when the reactants in areaction are producing products, but those products are being recombined again intoreactants. By altering the reaction conditions the amount of either products or reactantscan be increased.Refining is carried out in three main steps.Step 1 - SeparationThe oil is separated into its constituents by distillation, and some of these components(such as the refinery gas) are further separated with chemical reactions and by usingsolvents which dissolve one component of a mixture significantly better than another.Step 2 - ConversionThe various hydrocarbons produced are then chemically altered to make them moresuitable for their intended purpose. For example, naphthas are "reformed" from paraffinsand naphthenes into aromatics. These reactions often use catalysis, and so sulfur isremoved from the hydrocarbons before they are reacted, as it would 'poison' the catalystsused. The chemical equilibria are also manipulated to ensure a maximum yield of thedesired product.Step3 - PurificationThe hydrogen sulfide gas which was extracted from the refinery gas in Step 1 is convertedto sulfur, which is sold in liquid form to fertiliser manufacturers.The refinery produces a range of petroleum products.PetrolPetrol (motor gasoline) is made of cyclic compounds known as naphthas. It is made in twogrades: Regular (91 octane) and Super or Premium (96 octane), both for spark ignitionengines. These are later blended with other additives by the respective petrol companies.Jet fuel/Dual purpose keroseneThe bulk of the refinery produced kerosene is high quality aviation turbine fuel (Avtur) usedby the jet engines of the domestic and international airlines. Some kerosene is used for heating and cooking.Diesel OilThis is less volatile than gasoline and is used mainly in compression ignition engines, in roadvehicles, agricultural tractors, locomotives, small boats and stationary engines. Some dieseloil (also known as gas oil) is used for domestic heating.Fuel OilsA number of grades of fuel oil are produced from blending. Lighter grades are used for thelarger, lower speed compression engines (marine types) and heavier grades are for boilersand as power station fuel.BitumenThis is best known as a covering on roads and airfield runways, but is also used in industry asa waterproofing material.Sulfur Sulfur is removed from the crude during processing and used in liquid form in themanufacture of fertilisers
Fuel GasRefinery Fuel/Fuel GasSr Units Name1AGS- Air Generation SystemLight GasH2S2AGU- Acid Generation Unit3ARU- Amine Recovery Unit4ATF Merox- Aviation Turbine Fuel Merox5ATF-HDT- Aviation Turbine Fuel Hydrotreater 6CCR- Continuous Catalytic Reformer 7CDU- Crude Distillation Unit8DCU-Delayed Crocker Unit9Desal/Demin Plant10DHDT- Diesel Hydrotreating11ETP- Effluent Treatment Plant12FCCU- Fluid Catalytic Cracker Unit
13GMU- Gasoline Merox Unit14HMU- Hydrogen Manufacturing UnitLight 16NCU-Needle Coke UnitNaptha17NHT- Naptha Hydrotreate18PRU- Propylene Recovery Unit19SGU-Saturated Gas Unit20SRU- Sulphur Recoveru Unit21SS&H- Sulphur Storage & Handling22SWS- Sour Water Strippe23UGS- Unsaturated Gas Seperation Unit24VBS- Visbreaker Unit25VDU- Vaccume Distillation UnitHeavy 26VGO-HDT- Vaccume Gas Hydrotreater Naptha
H2S to SRU
KeroseneSour WateJet Fuel(From CDU, VDU, HDS,FCCu, Etc)Diesel OilH2S
DieselStripped Water Gas OilPropaneReducedCrudeButaneCO2PropyleneLight VaccumeGas Oil C3/C4To Hydrocracker & H2Hydrotreater Natural GasDieselHeavy Vaccume Gas OilI ButaneGasoline SteamPremier CokeVaccume Coker Naptha to CCR
Residuel Coker Gas Oil to FCCUPetroleum Coke
(Road, Roofing, waterproofing)
(VDU) Vaccume Distillation UnitDiesel FuelPropaneLPGButaneNonaneATF MEROXAviation TurbineFuel Merox
Jet Fuel/KeroseneCCRContinuos CatalyticReformer 
Gasolines BlendingSuper Premium UnleadedPremiun unleadedUnleadedunleaded
(FCCU) FluidCatalytic CrackingUnitsVGO-HDTVaccume Gas OilHydotreater Sulphur AlkylationUnitPoly UnitPropyleneHrdrocracker DCU- Delayed Coker Unitsws- Sour Water Stripper HMU- HydrogenManufacturing Unit
Neddle CokeUnit
Supporting UnitsBitumenBlowingCrude Oil StorageTank(CDU)Crude Distillation Unit / Atmospheric Distillation Uni
NHTUNaptha HydrotreateUnitISOMLight NapthaIsomerisationNapthaNHTUNaptha HydrotreateUnitDHDTDiesel Hydrotreater Gas ProcessingARUAmine RecoveryUnitMerox UnitSRUSulphur Recover UnitHeatingDesalter ATF HDT-ATF Hydrotreater 
Crude Oil Storage
Crude Oil Storage
The American Petroleum Institute (API) has developed a characterization for the density of crude oils:˚API = (141.5/Specific Gravity@60˚F) -131.5When comparing crude oils, the crude oil with the higher API will be easier to refine than one with a lower API.In almost all cases, crude oils have no inherent value without petroleum refining processes to convert them intomarketable products. Crude oil is a complex mixture of hydrocarbons that also contains sulfur, nitrogen, heavymetals and salts. Most of these contaminants must be removed in part or total during the refining process. Thehydrocarbons that make up crude oil have boiling points from less than 60˚F to greater than 1200˚F (60-650˚C).Crude oil varies in sulfur content. Higher sulfur crude oil is more corrosive than lower sulfur crude oils. In order toprocess higher sulfur crude oils, equipment must be built from more expensive alloys to provide higher corrosionresistance. Many refineries are not able to process crude oils with high sulfur content.Crude oil is delivered to a refinery by marine tanker, barge, pipeline, trucks and rail. The level of BS&W (bituminoussediment and water) is monitored to avoid high levels of water and solids. Water separates from crude oil as it sitsin tanks waiting to be refined. This water is generally drained to waste water treatment just prior to processing.
Process Chart

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