Wheelsethalf bodyActuator Bogie frameCo.
(a) Frames of the vehicle
(b) General principles of active steering
Figure 1: A railway vehicle
and the expression of matrices
are given in Ap-pendix A. Generally speaking, the model developed so far,being a linear representation of the system, is suitable for thedevelopmentof the control strategies, but it is not sufﬁcient forcontrol assessment. A more complicated version , includingthe model of the actuator, the sensor dynamics and the nonlin-earities of the wheel conicity, will be applied for evaluating thecontrollers.Fig.1 (b) shows a very simple representation of the railwayvehicle, being treated as a single rigid body with a mass of
. In steady-state, only the creep forces
are necessary to counteract the lateral unbalanceload (or cant deﬁciency forces
) for the vehicle on curves.Thus, the unnecessary creep torques
can onlyresult from an inappropriate steering. It is clear that in the per-fect steering conditions, the following must hold.
is thecant angle of the track on the curve. Suppose that
, the above requirements are equivalent to
, in which
is the desired angle of attack for both wheelsets while
the desired lateral displacement.Referring back to Eqn.(1), (2), (3) and (4), it yields that.
(9)Obviously, if the angle of attack and lateral deﬂections of thewheelsets can be readily measured, it would then be straightforward to design a control for the active steering. Unfortu-nately these signals are difﬁcult to measure, either expensivesensors are needed or complex estimators have to be used.However, if
, the system can meetrequirements of the perfect steering. In steady-state,
, leading to
are theonly solution. Noting that
, it requiresonly measuring the relative movements of the wheelsets andthe bogie.Althougha numberof controllersmay be developed,this paperproposes a feedforward control law to implement the strategy.The obvious advantage is that it does not interfere with the sta-bility and therefore can be developed independently.
3 Feedforward Control Strategies
Radial steering, achieved by passively or actively operating thewheelsets in line with the radius of curvature, generally cannotresult in perfect steering except for zero cant deﬁciency (
, the centrifugalforce is exactly balanced by the gravityforce of the vehicle on the canted track). Thus a more sophis-ticated strategy is necessary. The strategy studied in this paperfocuses on the quasi steady-state performance although how toavoid the performance becoming worse during the transition isalso under consideration.The feedforward control laws proposed for the perfect steeringare,
is the desired angle of attack, being given by (8),and
is the yaw stiffness and
is the radius of curvatureused in the control law. Perfect steering reduces to radial steer-ing if
. Clearly, the controllaws dependon the accuracyof the yaw stiffness
and the curvature
. Perfect steeringis only attained if the parameters are exact.To prove that above control laws could result in the perfectsteering, two new variables are introduced, which are
. Then, the steady-state version of equations of the system becomes