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TALAT Lecture 1251: Mechanical Working / Forming of Shapes

TALAT Lecture 1251: Mechanical Working / Forming of Shapes

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Published by CORE Materials
This lecture outlines of the metallurgical principles of mechanical working and forming of shapes from aluminium. Basic knowledge of physics and chemistry and some familiarity with TALAT lectures 1201 through 1205 is assumed.
This lecture outlines of the metallurgical principles of mechanical working and forming of shapes from aluminium. Basic knowledge of physics and chemistry and some familiarity with TALAT lectures 1201 through 1205 is assumed.

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Published by: CORE Materials on Oct 19, 2009
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TALAT Lecture 1251
Mechanical Working and Forming of Shapes
14 pages, 14 Figures
Advanced level

prepared by M H Jacobs
Interdisciplinary Research Centre in Materials
The University of Birmingham, UK

Objectives:
Outline of the metallurgical principles of mechanical working and forming of shapes
from aluminium.
Prerequisites:
Basic knowledge of physics and chemistry. Familiarity with the contents of TALAT
lectures 1201 through 1205.
Date of Issue: 1999
\ue000EAA - European Aluminium Association
TALAT 1251
2
1251 Mechanical Working and Forming of Shapes
Contents (14 Figures)
1251 Mechanical Working and Forming of Shapes________________________2
1251.01 Background to Mechanical Working and Forming______________________ 3
1251.01.01 Change of Shape____________________________________________________3
1251.01.02 Change of Microstructure and Mechanical Properties________________________4
1251.02 Forming Processes_______________________________________________12

1251.02.01 Flat Rolling_________________________________________________________12 1251.02.02 Extrusion_________________________________________________________12 1251.02.03 Forging___________________________________________________________13 1251.02.04 Sheet Metal Forming Processes________________________________________13

1251.03 References______________________________________________________ 14
1251.04 List of Figures___________________________________________________ 14
TALAT 1251
3
1251.01 Background to Mechanical Working and Forming

This involves the conversion of a cast ingot to a wrought product by processes which are carried out at high temperatures or at room temperature and which might involve reheating the material to restore ductility.

Two main aspects must be considered, which are (1) change of shape, and (2) change
of microstructure and mechanical properties. We will deal with these in turn.
1251.01.01
Change of Shape

As an example, consider the production of flat rolled products. If we start with a cast ingot of a suitable alloy which is 5m long and 300mm thick, this slab can be converted to foil which may be 7\u00b5m (.007mm) thick. Neglecting any change in width that occurs, the length of foil produced from this ingot is about 200km. The change of shape is expressed by measurement of strain. In the particular example, the total reduction in thickness can be expressed as

Original thickness - Final thicknessx 100 % = 99.998

Original thickness
This is called nominal strain or engineering strain.
Another way of expressing the thickness strain is

logn Original thickness = 10.7
Final thickness
This is called true strain.
Such large strains cannot be achieved in a single operation. The usual route is to start
with hot working processes followed by cold working and annealing,
Figure 1251.01.01.

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