prepared by M H Jacobs
Interdisciplinary Research Centre in Materials
The University of Birmingham, UK
1251.02.01 Flat Rolling_________________________________________________________12 1251.02.02 Extrusion_________________________________________________________12 1251.02.03 Forging___________________________________________________________13 1251.02.04 Sheet Metal Forming Processes________________________________________13
This involves the conversion of a cast ingot to a wrought product by processes which are carried out at high temperatures or at room temperature and which might involve reheating the material to restore ductility.
As an example, consider the production of flat rolled products. If we start with a cast ingot of a suitable alloy which is 5m long and 300mm thick, this slab can be converted to foil which may be 7\u00b5m (.007mm) thick. Neglecting any change in width that occurs, the length of foil produced from this ingot is about 200km. The change of shape is expressed by measurement of strain. In the particular example, the total reduction in thickness can be expressed as
This is called nominal strain or engineering strain.
Another way of expressing the thickness strain is
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