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TALAT Lecture 3207: Solidification Defects in Castings

TALAT Lecture 3207: Solidification Defects in Castings

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Published by CORE Materials
This lecture provides an introduction to the causes and remedies of the main solidification defects in castings. The students should be able to diagnose the major defects in castings and propose methods of preventing them. Basic knowledge of physics and foundry practice is assumed.
This lecture provides an introduction to the causes and remedies of the main solidification defects in castings. The students should be able to diagnose the major defects in castings and propose methods of preventing them. Basic knowledge of physics and foundry practice is assumed.

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TALAT Lecture 3207
Solidification Defects in Castings
29 pages, 29 figures
Basic Level
prepared by John Campbell and Richard A. Harding, IRC in Materials,
The University of Birmingham
Objectives:
\u2212 To provide an introduction to the causes and remedies of the main solidification
defects in castings
\u2212 The student should be able to diagnose the major defects in castings and propose
methods of preventing them
Prerequisites:
\u2212 Basic knowledge of physics and foundry practice.
Date of Issue: 1994
\ue000EAA - European Aluminium Association
TALAT 3207
2
3207
Solidification Defects in Castings
Table of Contents
3207Solidification Defects in Castings............................................................2
Gas Porosity............................................................................................................... 3

a) Gas \u201cprecipitation\u201d..............................................................................................4 b) Air Entrapment....................................................................................................8 c) Gas coming from cores........................................................................................9 Summary................................................................................................................11

Shrinkage Porosity.................................................................................................. 12

a) Macroporosity....................................................................................................12 b) Microporosity....................................................................................................14 c) Layer Porosity....................................................................................................15

Sources of Porosity.................................................................................................. 19
Hot Tears................................................................................................................. 20

Hot Tearing Model.................................................................................................21 Hot Tear Examples................................................................................................22 Prevention of Hot Tears.........................................................................................25

Cold Cracks............................................................................................................. 25 Conclusions.............................................................................................................. 28 Literature................................................................................................................. 29 List of Figures.......................................................................................................... 29

Introduction

The aim of this lecture is to introduce you to the formation and prevention of solidification defects in castings (Figure 3207.00.01). These can be sub-divided into three main categories:

\u2212 Gas porosity;
\u2212 Shrinkage porosity;
\u2212 Hot tearing and cracks.

Castings can unfortunately also sometimes contain other types of defects, such as inclusions of slag or moulding sand, but these are not classified as solidification defects and will not be covered in this lecture.

TALAT 3207
3
alu
Training in Aluminium Application Technologies
3207.00.01
Solidification Defects in Castings
Solidification Defects in Castings
Gas Porosity
Shrinkage Porosity
Gas in solution
(hydrogen)h
Entrainment
during filling (air)
Binder reakdown
(core gases)
Hot Tearing
and Cracks
Gas porosity varies in:
- Size

- Distribution
- Location
- Morphology

Gas Porosity
We shall start by considering gas porosity. This can again be sub-divided into a further
three causes:
\u2212 Firstly, gas held in solution in the molten metal can be precipitated as the metal
solidifies, simply as a result of the reduced solubility on freezing.
\u2212 Secondly, if the mould is filled under very poor conditions, air can be entrained in the
metal stream and then trapped as the metal solidifies.
\u2212 Finally, the sand binders used to make the moulds and cores often break down when

in contact with the molten metal and the gaseous decomposition products can force their way into the solidifying metal, leading to defects which are normally known as 'blows'.

These different types of gas porosity defect vary in their size, distribution, distance below the casting surface and morphology. It follows therefore that the cause of such defects in a real casting can be deduced from a careful examination.

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