Subsistence fishfarming in Africa
In this work, it is a question of providing a guide:
To program managers and their technical teams,
To managers at headquarters to monitor the success of programs.This manual covers:
The various stages of setting up a «shfarming» program,
As of the arrival on the ground, it is a question of evaluating the renewable resources present, the
needs for the populations and the already existing supply in sh. Then, a whole process is connectedinvolving the technical sides of the installation of sh ponds, follow-ups of the biological aspectsof the ponds. Finally, it is a question of managing and of carrying out a follow-up of the ponds andproduction of sh.
The constraints that must be taken into account by the eld actors.
Various constraints will inuence the choice for the development of sh production or not andwhat kind of techniques for a good t with human needs and the environment. They are environmen-
tal, in conjunction with the available resources, geomorphology, climate and hydrology of the area ofintervention. But they are also a social and cultural development, with the beliefs and taboos, landissues and laws. The fact that, according the region of intervention, the ethnic and social groups andcountries, modes of intervention will be different.
WHY ANOTHER HANDBOOK?
Several organizations have published manuals for the establishment of sh farms in Africa.The rst books calling systems in place at the time of the colonial system, but as a sh produc-tion for food self-sufciency. However, after many trials, the majority of them has proved unsustai-
nable in the longer term, for various reasons.The studies undertaken by different agencies of national or international research as the World
Fish Center (formerly ICLARM), CIRAD, IRD (ex ORSTOM), Universities of Louvain and Liège ... haveprovided evidence concerning the failures and have provided solutions and contributions to knowle
dge in both technical, social or biological species used.
However, looking at all the works, one can put forward four points:
Most handbooks are intended for production systems of sh for sale, involving:
A temporal investment which can become important and which leads to a professio
nalisation. This requires a technology with the appropriate training of technicians on aspects of
reproduction, nutrition or health of sh, either for the establishment of systems to produce foodto feed all the sh... Application requires external inputs whose supply may become a barrier for
Financial investment for, sometimes, land, establishment of ponds, the use of workers,
OBJECTIVES OF THE MANUAL