Is an infection of the lower respiratory tract that generally follows an upper respiratorytract infection. As a result of this viral (most common) or bacterial infection, the airwaysbecome inflamed and irritated, and mucus production increases.
1.Fever, tachypnea, mild dyspnea, pleuritic chest pain (possible).2.Cough with clear to purulent sputum production.3.Diffuse rhonchi and crackles(contrast with localized crackles usually heard withpneumonia).
1.Chest X-ray may rule out pneumonia. In bronchitis, films show no evidence of lunginfiltrates or consolidation.
1.Chest physiotherapy to mobilize secretions, if indicated.2.Hydration to liquefy secretions.
1.Inhaled bronchodilators to reduce bronchospasm and promote sputum expectoration.2.A course of oral antibiotics such as a macrolide may be instituted, but is controversial.3.Symptom management for fever and cough.
1.Encourage mobilization of secretion through ambulation, coughing, and deep breathing.2.Ensure adequate fluid intake to liquefy secretions and prevent dehydration caused byfever and tachypnea.3.Encourage rest, avoidance of bronchial irritant, and a good diet to facilitate recovery.4.Instruct the patient to complete the full course of prescribed antibiotics and explain theeffect of meals on drug absorption.5.Caution the patient on using over-the-counter cough suppressants, antihistamines, anddecongestants, which may cause drying and retention of secretions. However, coughpreparations containing the mucolytic guaifenesin may be appropriate.