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two school of urdu poetry

two school of urdu poetry

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Published by Javed Hussen
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Published by: Javed Hussen on Mar 18, 2014
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05/15/2014

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THE
 TWO SCHOOL THEORY OP
 URDU
 LITERATURE
By
CARLA 
 RAE
 PETIEVICH
 M.A., The
 University
 of
 California,
 Berkeley,
 1979
 A.B.,
 The
 University
 of
 California,
 Berkeley,
 1977
 A THESIS
 SUBMITTED IN
 PARTIAL FULFILLMENT
 OF
THE
 REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF
DOCTOR 
 OF PHILOSOPHY
in
THE FACULTY
 OF GRADUATE
 STUDIES
(Department
 of
 Asian Studies)
 We
 accept
 this
 thesis
 as
 conforming
to
 the
 required 
 standard
THE UNIVERSITY
 OF
 BRITISH
 COLUMBIA
July,
 1986
 ©Carla
 Rae
 Petievich,
 1986
 
In presenting this thesis
 in
 partial
 fulfilment
 of the
requirements
 for
 an
 advanced 
 degree
 at the
 University of
 British
 Columbia,
 I
 agree
 that
 the
 Library
 shall
 make
it
 freely available for reference
 and 
 study.
 I
 further
agree
 that
 permission
 for
 extensive
 copying
 of
 this thesis
for
 scholarly
 purposes
 may be
 granted 
 by the
 head 
 of my
department
 or by
 his
 or her
 representatives.
 It is
understood 
 that
 copying
 or
 publication
 of
 this thesis
for
 financial gain
 shall
 not be
 allowed 
 without
 my
 written
 permission.
Department
 of
 ftsxAN
 STUDICS
The University
 of
 British
 Columbia
1956
 Main
 Mall
 Vancouver,
 Canada
 V6T
 1Y3
Date
 \C Qcrro&eg.
 \9%$>
DE-6
 (3/81)
 
 ABSTRACT
The
 Two
 School theory,
 perhaps
 the most
 prevalent
 in
 Urdu
literary
 criticism,
 holds that
 the
 Delhi School
 and the Lucknow
School
 comprise
 the
 bulk
 of
 classical
 poetry.
 The two
 schools are
 named 
 after
 the
 cities
 of
 Delhi
 and Lucknow,
 Muslim 
 India's
two
 greatest centers
 of
 Urdu
 culture.
 Dihlavi
 poetry
 (the
 poetry written
 in
 Delhi),
 considered 
 by
 critics
 to be
 truer
 to
the Persian
 literary
 tradition
 than
 the
 poetry
 of Lucknow, is
described 
 as
 emphasizing
 mystical concerns, Persian
 styles
 of
composition,
 and a
 straightforward,
 melancholy
 poetic
 diction.
Lakhnavi poetry
 (that
 written
 in Lucknow) by
 contrast,
 is
characterized 
 as
 sensual,
 frivolous,
 abstruse,
 flashy,
 even
decadent.
Reasons
 posited 
 for
 Lakhnavi poetry's
 decadence
 are the
deleterious
 effects
 of the
 city's
 prosperous,
 even
 opulent,
economic
 an
 social
 climate during
 the
 late
 eighteenth
 and
nineteenth centuries. Delhi's
 ravaged 
 condition during
 the
same
 period 
 is
 likewise considered 
 the
 cause
 of
 Dihlavi
 poetry's
 allegedly
 contrasting, melancholic outlook. The present study challenges
 the Two
 School theory
 on
several
 counts, arguing that
 it is more an
 expression
 of
cultural
 values than
 the
 supportable
 results
 of
 rigorous
textual analysis.
 In the
 first
 place
 this
 study
 does
 not
recognize
 the
 literary
 distinctions
 between
 Dihlavi
 and
Lakhnavi poetry
 which
 are
 claimed 
 by "Two
 School"
 critics.
Secondly,
 it
 places
 the Two
 School theory
 in the
 context
 of

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