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ATPL Summary

ATPL Summary

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Published by: pantoufle on Feb 21, 2008
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01/13/2013

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- 1 -
Formulas / ATPL theory summary 
(Rob Groothuis) 
Index ATPL 
Page 2 to 2 Handy formulas / guidelines generalPage 3 to 14 Formulas all subjectsPage 15 to 18 General navigationPage 19 to 26 MeteorologyPage 27 to 31 InstrumentationPage 32 to 33 Communications VFR / IFR Page 34 to 34 Mass and balancePage 35 to 36 Flight planningPage 37 to 41 Human performance & limitationsPage 42 to 45 Radio navigationPage 46 to 48 Principles of flightPage 49 to 56 Aviation lawPage 57 to 57 Operational proceduresPage 58 to 59 PerformancePage 60 to 60 Aircraft general knowledge
 
- 2 -
Handy formulas/guidelines general 
**PUSH THE HEAD AND PULL THE TAIL**
 
intercepting NDB QDR/QDM
×=
60)(
angle glidepath ft height  glidepath
 
distance (ft)
≈ 
(300 ft/nm)
rate of descent (ft/min):GS x 5 = 3° glide pathclimb gradient =
60806000lim
××
TAS bcof rate
 glide path in ° =
100...%
 
x 60
 angle of bank in rate 1 turn =
10
TAS 
+ 7 (approximation)radius of turn (NM) =
π 
××
60
rateTAS 
 radius of turn (m) =
bankangle sm
×
tan10) / (
2
 ’’n’’ (load factor) =
bankangle
cos1
 
 factor load 
= V
Stall
increasing factor
IAS
 
(position/instrument error)
 
RAS/CAS
 
(compressibility)
 
EAS
 
(density)
 
TAS
EAS =
densityrelative
x TAS (example: relative density = ¼ at 40000 ft) VOR’s variation at station / NDB’s variation at aircraft.relative bearing + true heading = true bearingQDR + var. = QTE (QDR = magnetic from station / QTE = true from station)QDM ± 180° = QDR (radial) /
QDM = ’’bearings on the RMI’’ 
(QDR = magnetic to)LSS (kt) =
)(94,38
°
[273°K = 0°C]LSS = 661 kt (at sea level at ISA temp.= 288 k)LSS = 573 kt (ISA tropopause temp.= 216,5 k)
 LSS TAS nomach
=
.
 
 
- 3 -
 ATPL formulas – General navigation 
 
departure (E/W) in NM =
 ∆
longitude (in minutes) x cosine latitude(earth) convergency =
 ∆
longitude x sine mean latitudeconversion angle = ½ x convergency
rumblinenorthern hemispheregreat circlesouthern hemisphere great circlerumbline
Mercator projection
; scale = scale x or ÷ cosine
 ∆
latitude ( x from equator / ÷ to equator)
simple conic / Lamberts projection
(chart) convergency =
 ∆
longitude x sine latitude (or parallel of origin / constant of the cone)
Polar stereographic
 (chart) convergency =
 ∆
longitude
 
east
 
northsouth
east
(grid navigation) convergence =
 ∆
longitude from datum meridian(grid navigation) grivation = variation + convergence
×=
60
angle glidepathheight  glidepath
 
distance (ft)
(300 ft/nm)
rate of descent (ft/min)
GS (NM) x 5 (at 3° glide slope)glide path in ° =
100...%
x 60
 LSS TAS nomach
=
.
 
)(94,38
 LSS 
°
[273°K = 0°C]time to
)()( / 
 H O H  E actionof radius PSR PNR
+×=
/ E= safe endurance, H=GS home, O=GS out.distance to
)(
O H  DCP 
+×=
/ D=distance between airfields
point of equal time, moving into the wind.ISA 
15°C / 1013,25 mb / 1225 Gr/M
3
= International Standard Atmosphere

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