Jace . Crouch: sidore f Seville nd the Evolution f Kingship 1 1 nor have hey xamined n this ontext ny pecific olitical vent n which sidore may have been a major participant. Despite this tendency o deal with sidore almost xclusively s a scholarly leric, t can be argued hat sidore was actively involved n the political vents f the Visigothic ealm hroughout uch f his adult ife. My approach s threefold: irst, o demonstrate hat sidore's writings evince irm olitical onvictions, articularly egarding he nature f kingship nd the duties f Christian uler; secondly, o consider sidore's elationship o sev- eral Visigothic ings; nd finally, o examine he politico-religious vents f the Fourth Council of Toledo 633), wherein he Spanish bishops, ed by sidore, resolved anonically o involve hemselves ctively n the political ffairs f the kingdom, nd wherein he panish hurch stablished he acral ature f kingship in Hispania. Isidore's olitical deas re most learly xpressed n passages f the Sententiae (a short ork oncerned ith Christian morality), he Etymologiae an encyclopedia of acred nd secular earning), nd n the eventy-fifth anon f he Fourth oun- cil of Toledo which ronounces pon the nstitution f kingship nd its sacral nature).11 sidore's Historia othorum s also valuable, roviding hort limpses f his attitudes owards everal Gothic kings. Useful oo are the few urviving et- ters f the period, which nclude sidore's orrespondence nd the etters f si- dore's friend nd student, raulio of Saragossa.14 umismatic vidence s also useful t certain oints, ince he changing ature f the Visigothic ingship ad an impact n Gothic oins.
Grammar of sidore of Seville considers possible implications f Isidore's use of the word populus in a political context, but ultimately oncludes that Isidore's use of populus is too amorphous to have consistently dentifiable olitical content Arts Libéraux t Philosophie u Moyen Age Montréal: Université de Montréal. 1969). 763-75 Thompson, Goths n Spain, 170-79, devotes considerable attention to the Fourth Council of Toledo, and mentions that sidore was highly nfluential t this great council, but he does not examine how Isidore might have been important, r why we think that he influenced the canons of the council. 10Unless otherwise noted, Isidore's works re cited in the edition of Faustino Arevalo, PL 81-83. Although portions of the new international dition of the Etymologiae ave been published, Isidore's remarks n kingship re in book 9, which has not yet ppeared. Similarly, sidore's remarks n kingship in the Sententiae ppear in book 3, for which there s no new edition. nSententiae, d., Garcia Loaisae, PL 83.557-738; Etymologiae, d., Faustino Arevalo, PL 82.74- 728; Concilium Toletanum uartum, PL 84.363-390. 12Mommsen's ritical dition of the Latin text s available n Monumenta Germaniae Histórica, ue· torum Antiquissimorum, omus XI: Chronicorum Minorum aec. IV, V, Ví, Vil. Volumen Π (Berlin: Wei- dman, 1894), 241-303. An English translation s available in History f the Kings of the Goths, Vandals, and SuevL 2d rev. ed.. trans. Guido Donini & Gordon B. Ford, r. Leiden: E. I. Brill, 1970). l3PL 83.893-914. Latin text and English translation in The Letters f Isidore of Seville, 2d ed., trans. Gordon B. Ford, Jr. Amsterdam: Hakkert, 1970). This edition has not gone without criticism. 14Braulio's orrespondence with Isidore is collected in Claude Barlow, Braulio of Saragossa, ructo- sus of Braga, vol. 2 of Iberian Fathers, athers of the Church, vols. 62-63 (Washington, D. C: Catholic University f America Press, 1969), 15-26. 15George C. Miles, The Coinage of the Visigoths f Spain, Leovigild o Achila Π (New York: American Numismatic Society, 1952); Philip Grierson, Visigothic Metrology, Numismatic hronicle, th ser., 13 (1953): 74-87. A recent tudy hat makes excellent se of Visigothic oins is J. N. Hillgarth, Coins and Chronicles: ropaganda n Sixth-Century pain and the Byzantine ackground, istona 15 (1966): 483-50.