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IVMS- Basic Medical Science of Valvular Heart Disease

IVMS- Basic Medical Science of Valvular Heart Disease

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IN IVMS| Concepts in Cardiovascular Physiology and Pathophysiology Collection
http://www.scribd.com/collections/4400412/IVMS-Concepts-in-Cardiovascular-Physiology-and-Pathophysiology
IN IVMS| Concepts in Cardiovascular Physiology and Pathophysiology Collection
http://www.scribd.com/collections/4400412/IVMS-Concepts-in-Cardiovascular-Physiology-and-Pathophysiology

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Categories:Types, School Work
Published by: Marc Imhotep Cray, M.D. on Mar 21, 2014
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

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01/02/2015

 
Tutorial Notes Marc Imhotep Cray,M.D. BASIC MEDICAL SCIENCE OF VALVULAR HEART DISEASE 1
BASIC MEDICAL SCIENCE OF VALVULAR HEART DISEASE
Cardiac cycle
(From USMLE First Aid 2008 pg. 192)
Phases
 ––
left ventricle: 1. Isovolumetric
 contraction
 ––
period between mitral valve closure and aortic valve opening; period of highest O2 consumption
2. Systolic ejection
 ––
period between aortic valve opening and closing
3. Isovolumetric relaxation
 – –
period between aortic valve closing and mitral valve opening
4. Rapid filling
 ––
period just after mitral valve opening
5. Reduced filling
 ––
period  just before mitral valve closure
 
Tutorial Notes Marc Imhotep Cray,M.D. BASIC MEDICAL SCIENCE OF VALVULAR HEART DISEASE 2
Phases
 ––
left ventricle:
1. Isovolumetric contraction
 ––
period between mitral valve closure and aortic valve opening; period of highest O2 consumption 2. Systolic ejection
 ––
period between aortic valve opening and closing 3. Isovolumetric relaxation
 ––
period between aortic valve closing and mitral valve opening 4. Rapid filling
 ––
period just after mitral valve opening 5. Reduced filling
 ––
period just before mitral valve closure
Ventricular Pressure-Volume Loop Changes in Valve Disease
Cardiac valve disease significantly alters ventricular pressure and volume relationships during the cardiac cycle. A convenient way to analyze cardiac pressure and volume changes is by using ventricular  pressure-volume loops. The links below will illustrate the pressure-volume changes that occur with the following valve defects:
 
Tutorial Notes Marc Imhotep Cray,M.D. BASIC MEDICAL SCIENCE OF VALVULAR HEART DISEASE 3
Cardiac Valve Disease Tutorial
Aortic valve stenosis
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aortic_valve_stenosis  Aortic valve stenosis (AS) is a valvular heart disease caused by the incomplete opening of the aortic valve. The aortic valve controls the direction of blood flow from the left ventricle to the aorta. When in good working order, the aortic valve does not impede the flow of blood between these two spaces. Under some circumstances, the aortic valve becomes narrower than normal, impeding the flow of blood. This is known as aortic valve stenosis, or aortic stenosis, often abbreviated as  AS.  An aortic valve that, due to rheumatic heart disease, has a severe stenosis (centre of image). The pulmonary trunk is seen at the lower right (of the image). The proximal portion of right coronary artery and its ostium can be seen at the lower left (of the image). The proximal left main coronary artery and its ostium are seen on the right (of the image). Autopsy specimen.

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