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pengurusan makmal sains 8

pengurusan makmal sains 8

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Published by namly

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Published by: namly on Oct 21, 2009
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Concept mapping 8.1Objective
1.To know what is the laboratory science needed.
To know the different between physic, chemistry, biology and general sciencelaboratory
The special needs of teaching laboratories arise from the fact that they are heavily populated by persons undergoing training. Because the students have reached different levels inthe instruction, no two teaching laboratories, even though they may be used for teaching thesubject, are exactly alike in design or equipment. For these reasons they differ considerably fromnon-teaching laboratories. Certain basic needs are, however, common to all teachinglaboratories.Each type of laboratory has its own special problems connected with the installation of equipment, and the best opportunity of overcoming them occurs when the laboratory is designed.Difficulties invariably present themselves in later years, however, when items are purchased to
Layout of science
Designing the laboratoryDifferent between the typeof science laboratory
 provide for new techniques and the natural expansion of the department. One of the major  problems which arise is that of space. When new equipment is positioned the adverse effects itmay have on equipment already in existence, and conversely any which the existing equipmentmay have on the new, are important considerations. In many cases special provision must bemade for supporting either delicate or weighty items. The effects of local conditions such ashumidity, temperature, and the effect of sunlight, dust, draughts, noise and vibration, must also be given attention.
8.3Designing the laboratory
First, consider the laboratory in terms of its main features such as the walls, ceilings,floors and benches; then think about the other requirements which will give it life. This includeheating, lighting, ventilation (including fume extraction), drainage, and the supply services to benches and other furniture. The designer must incorporate these component parts of thelaboratory into a plan and must indicate clearly that he requires and the amount of money to bespent on the concerned. There have a lot of things that need to be think and do for design thelaboratory.
8.3.1Laboratory Benches
The laboratory benches can be categorized into fixed benches, and mobile benches. Whether the benches are fixed to the floor or are mobile depends on the usemade of them. Fixed benches are adequate for the present curriculum. But the newestcurriculum often demands mobile benches. The obvious advantages of fixed benches arethat water, gas and electric supplies can be fixed onto them and thus giving convenience
to the users; the benches are always horizontal and they should be vibration-proof. On theother hands mobile benches allow new bench arrangements to be carried out whenever the teachers feel that a particular arrangement permits better communication betweenstudents. But mobile benches do not carry electric power supply. Electric supply, runningwater and gas mains, if fitted, must be on the wall or side benches. To use these services,the mobile benches have to be pushed against these wall benches making the drawers or cupboards on the wall benches inaccessible to all. This disadvantage can be overcome bydistributing the services through overhead booms.Whatever the situation, the bench should be of sturdy design with a goodhorizontal surface, which can be easily achieved by making the table-top adjustable.Generally, because of microscopic work, the benches in the biology laboratories arelower than that in the physics or chemistry laboratories. The height of the benches in the physics or chemistry laboratories may be 75 cm for students doing the experiment in thesitting position or may be 90 cm for students working in the standing position.For safety in the laboratory, a high table with the students performing theexperiments in the standing position is preferable. The students can easily move awayfrom the bench if something should go wrong with the experiments thus avoiding personal injury.a.The Fixed Benches
Most of the laboratories in the South-East Asian region have benches that arefixed to the floor. The water pipes, gas pipes electrical conduits are permanentfeatures and they form part of a laboratory bench, which is usually made of wood.
The benches can be of the island type. Often they are long and eight students canoccupy a single bench with four students on each side facing one another. Note

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