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Isolated Switch-mode Power Converters

Isolated Switch-mode Power Converters

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Published by Niranjan kumar
all about isolated switch-mode power converters
all about isolated switch-mode power converters

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Published by: Niranjan kumar on Oct 21, 2009
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12/02/2012

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16
Switch-Mode Converter PowerSupplies
A switch-mode power (SWP) converter transforms a (usually) fixed level of dcvoltage to an adjustable level of dc output voltage. Voltage control is realizedby variation of the duty cycle (onoff ratio) of a semiconductor switching device,as in the chopper converter described in the Chapter 15.In a SWP system it is necessary to use an isolating transformer, as shownin the basic schematic of Fig. 16.1.The switching frequency of the dc–dc con-verter can be made much higher than the line frequency so that the filteringelements, including the transformer, may be made small, lightweight, efficient,and low cost. The output of the transformer is rectified and filtered to give asmoothed output voltage
o
. The output voltage may be regulated by using avoltage feedback control loop that employs a PWM switching scheme.
16.1 HIGH-FREQUENCY SWITCHING
Switch-mode power supplies use ‘‘high’’ switching frequencies to reduce thesize and weight of the transformer and filter components. This helps to makeSWP equipment portable. Consider a transformer operating at a given peak flux
m
,limitedbysaturation,andatacertainrms current,limitedbywindingheating.For a given number of secondary turns
2
, there is a given secondary voltage
2
related to the primary values
1
and
1
by
Copyright
2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
 
F
IG.
1
Schematic of a switch-mode supply.
 N  N 
2121
=
(16.1)The sinusoidal primary (applied) voltage
1
is related to the peak flux
m
andsupply frequency
1
by a relation
1
4.44
m
 f 
1
n
(16.2)where
n
is a design constant.If the applied frequency
1
is increased with the same flux and the samewaveforms, the voltages
1
, and
2
will also increase proportionately. But if thetransformer windings are not changed and use the same respective sizes of con-ductor wire and the same respective number of turns
1
,
2
, the current ratingsof the two windings, will be unchanged. Increase of the voltages due to increasedfrequency, with unchanged current ratings, implies a proportionate increase inthe winding voltampere (VA) ratings, which is equally true for both the primaryand secondary windings.
16.2 HIGH-FREQUENCY ISOLATIONTRANSFORMER 
Transformer iron losses, due to magnetic hysteresis and to eddy currents, increasewith frequency. For SWP equipment the increased losses can become considera-ble so that it may be desirable to use ferrite core materials rather than iron orsteel laminations. The isolation transformer in Fig. 16.1 is a shell-type coreddevice with a form of B-H loop shown inFig. 16.2.The peak flux density
B
m
is related to the flux
m
by
 B
mm
=Φ
area of flux path(16.3)
Copyright
2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
 
F
IG.
2
Two-winding transformer: (a) shell-type core and (b) core B-H loop.
InFig.16.2theintercept
B
is knownastheresidualfluxdensity.Themagnetizingintensity H in Fig. 16.2 is proportional to the magnetizing current in the winding.Time variations of the current and flux cause iron power losses in the trans-former core, which appear as heat. When ceramic ferrite rather than iron orsteel laminations is used as the magnetic core material, and when the frequencyis greater than 20 kHz, the working peak flux density then falls from (say)1.5 T to about 0.3 T. But the iron losses in the ferrite also increase withfrequency so that the usable flux density then falls, and still more expensiveferrite materials may be desirable. Nevertheless, the economic benefits of usinghigh-frequency switching are considerable, particularly in portable equipment.Present (2002) developments are moving toward operating switching frequen-cies up to 1 MHz, but the consequent problems of electromagnetic interference(EMI) then become significant.In the flyback and forward converter connections, described below, unidi-rectional transformer core excitation is used where only the positive part of theB-H loop (Fig. 16.2b) is used.For the push–pull, full-bridge, and half-bridge converter circuits, describedbelow, there is bidirectional excitation of the transformer core and both the posi-tive and negative parts of the B-H loop are used.
16.3 PUSH–PULL CONVERTE16.3.1 Theory of Operation
The dc–dc push–pull converter (Fig. 16.3)uses a center-tapped transformer andtwo controlled switches,
S
1
and
S
2
. To prevent core saturation both switches must
Copyright
2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

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