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Satellite Based Position Location and Navigation Systems

Satellite Based Position Location and Navigation Systems

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Published by: mmsriharikesh on Oct 21, 2009
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TRACK 1: Satellite-based Position Location and Navigation SystemsSession 4: Consumer ApplicationsAn AutoPC for Supporting In-Vehicle Navigation and Location-BasedMultimedia Services
Chun-Hsin Wu*, Ann-Tzung Cheng, Shao-Ting Lee, Jan-Ming HoInstitute of Information Science,Academia Sinica, Taiwan{wuch, jahorng, kingking, hoho}@iis.sinica.edu.tw
*Corresponding Author:Dr. Chun-Hsin WuInstitute of Information Science,Academia Sinica, Nankang,Taipei, Taiwan, 115Tel: +886-2-27883799 ext. 2410Fax: +886-2-27824814E-mail: wuch@iis.sinica.edu.tw
An AutoPC for Supporting In-Vehicle Navigation and Location-Based MultimediaServices
Chun-Hsin Wu, Ann-Tzung Cheng, Shao-Ting Lee, and Jan-Ming HoInstitute of Information Science,Academia Sinica, Taiwan{wuch, jahorng, kingking, hoho}@iis.sinica.edu.tw
With the rapid progress in thedevelopment of wireless technology, the bandwidth of wireless local area network (WLAN) is getting higher and its outdoor transmission distance is also getting longer. It becomes feasible to build a regionalcommunication infrastructure in local areas, e.g.,in the campus of an institute or a university,using WLAN. Thus, the design of newgeneration on-board PCs aims not only to provide conventional navigation services in ruralor urban areas, but also to deploy integratedmultimedia services in regional areas such ascampuses. In this paper we present our design of in-vehicle navigation and location-basedmultimedia applications in an 802.11b wirelessenvironment. It supports mobile communication based on IETF mobile IP standards with routeoptimization, smooth handoff, and fast handoff.Furthermore, in order to encourage fastdeployment and to reduce system costs, weutilized open technologies in designing our  prototype system. The developed AutoPC is areal-time embedded system platform on a single- board PC with GPS, featured by a downsizedembedded Linux and a bilingual windowssystem. The platform supports applications suchas in-vehicle navigation, real-time trafficinformation, MP3 player, and MPEG-4streaming through mobile IPv4. This prototypeis evaluated on a campus-wide 802.11b network,where two neighboring access points are placedabout 150 meters apart from each other along theroadside such that a road in the campus is fullycovered by 802.11b radio signals. Our  preliminary experiments show that the lowhandoff overhead makes it possible for an in-vehicle AutoPC to run video streamingapplication seamlessly on the road even whenthe car speed is up to 50 km/hr. Besides, a 486-level platform is powerful enough to support in-vehicle navigation and to play MP3 smoothly, but a more powerful CPU is required to run our RTP-based MPEG-4 video streamingapplications.
 Mobile and wireless communicationtechnologies are ushering in a new era. Not onlyserving the demand for wireless voicecommunication, the increasing use of cellular  phone has also created a strong demand for mobile data communication. These demands aredriving the creation of a new computing worldthat will encourage the development of newapplications especially for mobile and wirelessenvironment.Different from traditional computing paradigm,location is specific information to mobilecomputing. Computer applications that utilizelocation information can provide location-specific services that are more attractive to users. Nowadays the Global Position Systems (GPS)continuously and universally serve as a source of  position and location information that arefundamental to mobile computing [5][11]. AGPS-enabled application can then provide more precise and valuable services in response to present place and time.Integrating with digital maps and geographicinformation systems, a GPS-based AutoPCequipped in car supporting navigation and route-guidance services has been proved useful todrivers [2][15][21]. Land-vehicle navigation has become one of the most successful applicationsof GPS [1][8][23]. In addition, an AutoPC willalso play an important role in intelligenttransportation systems (ITS): it will work as a platform for computation and communication,and become a part of future intelligent vehicle[4][6][9][16]. Although an AutoPC in car demonstrates a mobile platform in nature and itis expected to support more functions, the lack of inexpensive broadband data access restricts itsfuture development [13].In the wireless communication research areas,recent advancements in wireless local areanetworks (WLAN) have showed their promisesto wireless broadband data access [7]. Followingthe IEEE 802.11b standard announced in fall1999, an 802.11b-compliant device can transmit
data up to 11 Mb/s [12]. The newly developed802.11a standard further enhances thetransmission rate up to 54 Mb/s. Since 802.11baccess points and network adapters are cost-effective and these products can operateunlicensedly in the ISM bands, 802.11b systemshave been widely deployed in many in-door  buildings and public spaces for wireless Internetaccess [10].Furthermore, in an outdoor environment,standard 802.11b equipments can transmit dataup to 100 meters away. With an enhancedantenna or increased transmit-power, they canalso transmit data more than 200 metersoutdoors. These features make 802.11b-basedinfrastructure feasible to provide inexpensive broadband wireless data access for users within acertain region such as campus or community.This paper will describe a new navigationenvironment that has broadband mobile Internetconnectivity, and the design of an AutoPC thatutilizes this environment to provide in-vehiclenavigation and location-based multimediaservices.
 As the bandwidth of wireless local areanetwork gets higher and its outdoor transmissiondistance gets longer, there will be more large-scale outdoor WLAN services deployed to servewhole campuses or parks. In addition toconventional navigation services in rural or urban areas, a future GPS-based AutoPC should be able to utilize this broadband access and alsonavigate a driver within a campus or park.To comprehend our researches in ITS, we are building an 802.11b WLAN infrastructure as a basis of our campus guidance system. As stated,this infrastructure could provide a cost-effective,high-bandwidth, and autonomous wirelessenvironment, and then we can explore moreopportunities for future mobile applications.Figure 1 shows the proposed architecture of our campus guidance system. Similar to ITSarchitecture, the guidance system is composed of on-board unit, road-side unit, and center unit. AnAutoPC which connects with a GPS receiver anda 802.11b network adapter plays a central role inthe on-board unit. It communicates with theoutside world through the 802.11b access pointand base station in the road side, which isconnected to the existing wired backbone. Sincethis is an all-IP core network, the AutoPC canrequest location-specific services or contentsfrom usual Internet servers. Currently wesupport multimedia, GIS, and real-timeinformation contents in the server unit.
On-Board Unit
BackboneAutoPCGPS Receiver 
     P     C     M     C     I     A
802.11bAccess PointBase Station
LCD and Touch PannelAudio InputAudio OutputDigitalCamera
Road-Side UnitCenter Unit
Multimedia/GIS/Real-timeinformation Server 
Internet Services
 Figure 1. Architecture of a campus guidancesystem
 For an Internet-enabled AutoPC, there would be more diverse service requests from users. Theowner of a large-scale WLAN infrastructurewould also like to provide regional specificinformation to interested users based on location.Besides, the navigation services of a campusguidance system may also interest people whouse handheld devices rather than AutoPC. Likethe seeking of a portable low-cost platform for in-vehicle navigation [3][14][17][22], thereshould also be an open interface or platform thatsupports portability, interoperability andextensibility in the design of a campus guidancesystem.
System Architecture
The architecture of our multi-purpose AutoPCsystem is showed in Figure 2. In our design, theWindows framework serves as the middleware between the applications and the underlyingoperating system and hardware platform. Itdefines application interface and operatingsystem (OS) abstract interface to maintain portability and interoperability. Applicationsdeveloped on top of the Windows framework can execute not only on AutoPC, but also onInternet appliances (IA) such as handhelddevices and Personal Digital Assistant (PDA).Currently we have developed prototype systemsrunning on single-board PC and Compaq iPAQPDA under embedded Linux. The version

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