Welcome to Scribd, the world's digital library. Read, publish, and share books and documents. See more
Download
Standard view
Full view
of .
Save to My Library
Look up keyword
Like this
3Activity
0 of .
Results for:
No results containing your search query
P. 1
Six Sessions of Sprint Interval Training Increases Muscle Oxidative Potential and Cycle Endurance Capacity in Humans

Six Sessions of Sprint Interval Training Increases Muscle Oxidative Potential and Cycle Endurance Capacity in Humans

Ratings: (0)|Views: 543 |Likes:
Published by burgoschile

More info:

Published by: burgoschile on Oct 21, 2009
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

Availability:

Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
download as PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd
See more
See less

08/18/2011

pdf

text

original

 
98:1985-1990, 2005. First published Feb 10, 2005; doi:10.1152/japplphysiol.01095.2004
 J Appl Physiol
Bradwell and Martin J. GibalaKirsten A. Burgomaster, Scott C. Hughes, George J. F. Heigenhauser, Suzanne N.
 
You might find this additional information useful...
38 articles, 20 of which you can access free at:This article citeshttp://jap.physiology.org/cgi/content/full/98/6/1985#BIBL18 other HighWire hosted articles, the first 5 are:This article has been cited by[PDF] [Full Text] [Abstract] , April 1,2008; 104(4): 931-937.
 J Appl Physiol
H. J. Green, E. B. Bombardier, T. A. Duhamel, G. P. Holloway, A. R. Tupling and J. Ouyang
intermittent exerciseAcute responses in muscle mitochondrial and cytosolic enzyme activities during heavy
[PDF] [Full Text] [Abstract] , July 1,2008; 295(1): R236-R242.
 Am J Physiol Regulatory Integrative Comp Physiol
MacDonaldM. Rakobowchuk, S. Tanguay, K. A. Burgomaster, K. R. Howarth, M. J. Gibala and M. J. 
peripheral arterial stiffness and flow-mediated dilation in healthy humansSprint interval and traditional endurance training induce similar improvements in
F. M. Iaia, Y. Hellsten, J. J. Nielsen, M. Fernstrom, K. Sahlin and J. Bangsbo
maintains muscle oxidative capacity despite a reduction in training volumeFour weeks of speed endurance training reduces energy expenditure during exercise and
M. J. Gibala, S. L. McGee, A. P. Garnham, K. F. Howlett, R. J. Snow and M. Hargreaves
expression of PGC-1{alpha} in human skeletal muscleBrief intense interval exercise activates AMPK and p38 MAPK signaling and increases the
[PDF] [Full Text] [Abstract] , June 1,2009;106(6): 1875-1887.
S. J. Bailey, D. P. Wilkerson, F. J. DiMenna and A. M. Jones
kinetics in humansInfluence of repeated sprint training on pulmonary O2 uptake and muscle deoxygenation
including high-resolution figures, can be found at:Updated information and serviceshttp://jap.physiology.org/cgi/content/full/98/6/1985can be found at:
 Journal of Applied Physiology
aboutAdditional material and informationhttp://www.the-aps.org/publications/japplThis information is current as of June 15, 2009 .
http://www.the-aps.org/.ISSN: 8750-7587, ESSN: 1522-1601. Visit our website atPhysiological Society, 9650 Rockville Pike, Bethesda MD20814-3991. Copyright© 2005 by the American Physiological Society.those papers emphasizing adaptive and integrative mechanisms. It is published 12 times a year (monthly) by the Americanpublishes original papers that deal with diverse areas of research in applied physiology, especially
 Journal of Applied Physiology
  on J  un e 5  , 0  0  9  j   a p. p y  s i   ol   o g y . o g ownl   o a d  e d f   om 
 
Six sessions of sprint interval training increases muscle oxidative potentialand cycle endurance capacity in humans
Kirsten A. Burgomaster,
1
Scott C. Hughes,
1
George J. F. Heigenhauser,
2
Suzanne N. Bradwell,
1
and Martin J. Gibala
1
1
 Exercise Metabolism Research Group, Department of Kinesiology, and 
2
 Department of Medicine, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada
Submitted 1 October 2004; accepted in final form 1 February 2005
Burgomaster, Kirsten A., Scott C. Hughes, George J. F.Heigenhauser, Suzanne N. Bradwell, and Martin J. Gibala.
Six sessions of sprint interval training increases muscle oxida-tive potential and cycle endurance capacity in humans.
J ApplPhysiol
98: 1985–1990, 2005. First published February 10 2005;doi:10.1152/japplphysiol.01095.2004.—Parra et al. (
 Acta Physiol.Scand 
169: 157–165, 2000) showed that 2 wk of daily sprint intervaltraining (SIT) increased citrate synthase (CS) maximal activity but didnot change “anaerobic” work capacity, possibly because of chronicfatigue induced by daily training. The effect of fewer SIT sessions onmuscle oxidative potential is unknown, and aside from changes inpeak oxygen uptake (V˙
O
2 peak 
), no study has examined the effect of SIT on “aerobic” exercise capacity. We tested the hypothesis that sixsessions of SIT, performed over 2 wk with 1–2 days rest betweensessions to promote recovery, would increase CS maximal activityand endurance capacity during cycling at
80% V˙
O
2 peak 
. Eightrecreationally active subjects [age
22
1 yr; V˙
O
2 peak 
45
3ml
kg
1
min
1
(mean
SE)] were studied before and 3 days afterSIT. Each training session consisted of four to seven “all-out” 30-sWingate tests with 4 min of recovery. After SIT, CS maximal activityincreased by 38% (5.5
1.0 vs. 4.0
0.7 mmol
kg protein
1
h
1
)and resting muscle glycogen content increased by 26% (614
39 vs.489
57 mmol/kg dry wt) (both
P
0.05). Most strikingly, cycleendurance capacity increased by 100% after SIT (51
11 vs. 26
5 min;
P
0.05), despite no change in V˙
O
2 peak 
. The coefficient of variation for the cycle test was 12.0%, and a control group (
n
8)showed no change in performance when tested
2 wk apart withoutSIT. We conclude that short sprint interval training (
15 min of intense exercise over 2 wk) increased muscle oxidative potential anddoubled endurance capacity during intense aerobic cycling in recre-ationally active individuals.Wingate test; citrate synthase; muscle glycogen
PERFORMING REPEATED BOUTS
of high-intensity “sprint”-type ex-ercise over several weeks or months induces profound changesin skeletal muscle. A wide range of muscle metabolic andmorphological adaptations have been described (25, 34); how-ever, the magnitude and direction of change in many variablesdepend on the nature of the training protocol, i.e., the fre-quency, intensity, and duration of sprint efforts as well as therecovery between bouts. Given the significant contributionfrom aerobic energy metabolism during repeated sprinting (3,26, 29, 40), it is not surprising that an increase in muscleoxidative potential, as indicated by changes in the maximalactivities of “marker” enzymes such as citrate synthase, hasbeen reported after 6–8 wk of sprint training (19, 25). Re-cently, two studies reported large increases in citrate synthasemaximal activity, as well as peak oxygen uptake (V˙
O
2 peak 
),after only 2 wk of daily sprint training (30, 33). These datasuggest that improvements in aerobic energy metabolism canbe rapidly stimulated by brief bouts of very intense exercise;however, the effect of fewer sprint training sessions is notknown. In addition, aside from changes in V˙
O
2 peak 
, we areaware of no data that suggest sprint training leads to anincreased ability to perform exercise that is primarily “aerobic”in nature, e.g., an endurance test to fatigue at a fixed submaxi-mal workload.The primary purpose of the present study, therefore, was toexamine the effect of six sessions of sprint interval training onmuscle oxidative potential, V˙
O
2 peak 
, and endurance time tofatigue during cycling at an intensity equivalent to
80%V˙
O
2 peak 
. On the basis of pilot work in our laboratory thatshowed modest performance improvements after 6 consecutivedays of sprint training, we decided to employ a 2-wk trainingintervention, such that 1–2 days of rest were permitted betweentraining sessions, in an effort to promote recovery and facilitateperformance adaptations. The importance of rest days betweensprint training sessions was emphasized in a recent study (30)that showed peak and mean power elicited during a Wingatetest were unchanged after 14 consecutive days of sprint train-ing; however, when subjects performed the same number of training sessions over 6 wk (i.e., with 1–2 days of rest betweentraining sessions), power output improved significantly. Al-though numerous mechanisms could potentially be involved,the importance of rest days between training sessions may berelated in part to the fact that strenuous exercise leads toinactivation of muscle cation pumps (23, 36), and it has beenspeculated that up to several days may be required for normal-ization of sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca
2
pump function (41).Thus the mode and intensity of sprint efforts in the presentstudy was similar to two recent studies that incorporated 2-wk training interventions (30, 33); however, the overall volumewas reduced by approximately two-thirds and in totalamounted to only
15 min of exercise over 2 wk. We hypoth-esized that our short sprint training protocol would increasemuscle oxidative potential and cycle endurance capacity. Wealso measured resting muscle glycogen concentration becauseonly a few sprint training studies have done so and these haveyielded conflicting results (14, 27, 30, 33, 28). Our experimen-tal design included a control group who completed the exerciseperformance tests
2 wk apart with no training intervention,
Address for reprint requests and other correspondence: M. J. Gibala,Exercise Metabolism Research Group, Dept. of Kinesiology, McMaster Univ.,Hamilton, Ontario, Canada L8S 4K1 (E-mail: gibalam@mcmaster.ca).The costs of publication of this article were defrayed in part by the paymentof page charges. The article must therefore be hereby marked “
advertisement 
in accordance with 18 U.S.C. Section 1734 solely to indicate this fact.
 J Appl Physiol
98: 1985–1990, 2005.First published February 10 2005; doi:10.1152/japplphysiol.01095.2004.8750-7587/05 $8.00 Copyright
©
2005 the American Physiological Societyhttp://www.jap.org 1985
  on J  un e 5  , 0  0  9  j   a p. p y  s i   ol   o g y . o g ownl   o a d  e d f   om 
 
and all subjects performed extensive familiarization trials be-fore baseline testing.
METHODS
Subjects
Sixteen healthy individuals volunteered to take part in the experi-ment (Table 1). Eight subjects (2 women) were assigned to a traininggroup and performed exercise tests before and after a 2-wk sprinttraining intervention. Eight other men served as a control group andperformed the exercise performance tests
2 wk apart with notraining intervention. We also obtained needle biopsy samples fromthe training group to examine potential training-induced adaptationsin resting skeletal muscle. We did not obtain biopsies from the controlgroup for ethical reasons, because other studies have shown no changein resting muscle metabolite concentrations or the maximal activitiesof mitochondrial enzymes when control subjects are tested severalweeks apart with no sprint training intervention (1, 28). All subjectswere recreationally active individuals from the McMaster Universitystudent population who participated in some form of exercise two tothree times per week (e.g., jogging, cycling, aerobics), but none wasengaged in any sort of structured training program. After routinemedical screening, the subjects were informed of the procedures to beemployed in the study and associated risks, and all provided written,informed consent. The experimental protocol was approved by theMcMaster University and Hamilton Health Sciences Research EthicsBoard.
Preexperimental Procedures
Before taking part in any experimental trial (i.e., before baselinemeasurements), all subjects performed familiarization trials to becomeoriented with all testing procedures and training devices. Specifically,all subjects performed
1
) a V˙
O
2 peak 
test;
2
) a “practice ridetoestablish a workload that elicited
80% of V˙
O
2 peak 
; and
3
) anendurance capacity test that consisted of cycling to volitional fatigueat
80% of V˙
O
2 peak 
on at least two separate occasions.
 Details of Exercise Performance Tests˙
O
2 peak 
test.
Subjects performed an incremental test to exhaustionon an electronically braked cycle ergometer (Excalibur Sport V2.0,Lode, Groningen, The Netherlands) to determine V˙
O
2 peak 
using anonline gas collection system (Moxus modular oxygen uptake system,AEI technologies, Pittsburgh, PA). The initial three stages of the testconsisted of 2-min intervals at 50, 100, and 150 W, respectively, andthe workload was then increased by 25 W every minute until voli-tional exhaustion. The value used for V˙
O
2 peak 
corresponded to thehighest value achieved over a 30-s collection period.
Cycle endurance capacity test.
Subjects cycled to volitional ex-haustion on an electronically braked cycle ergometer (Lode) at aworkload designed to elicit
80% of V˙
O
2 peak 
. All performance trialswere conducted in the absence of temporal, verbal, or physiologicalfeedback. The test was terminated when pedal cadence fell below 40rpm (according to the manufacturer’s specifications, the power outputdisplayed may not have been valid below this cadence), and exerciseduration was recorded. Expired breath samples for the determinationof ventilation rate, oxygen uptake, carbon dioxide production, andrespiratory exchange ratio were collected and averaged over the 6- to10-min period of exercise.
 Reproducibility of exercise performance tests.
Ten individuals whowere not subjects in the present study performed a V˙
O
2 peak 
test andcycle endurance capacity test on separate days at least 1 wk apart, andmethod error reproducibility was calculated as described by Sale (35).The coefficient of variation for the V˙
O
2 peak 
test and cycle endurancecapacity test was 3.7 and 12.0%, respectively.
 Experimental Protocol
The experimental protocol consisted of 
1
) baseline testing (i.e.,after familiarization procedures described above);
2
) a 2-wk sprinttraining intervention or similar period without sprint training (controlgroup); and
3
) posttesting, as described further below.
 Baseline testing.
Baseline measurements for all subjects consistedof a V˙
O
2 peak 
test and a cycle endurance capacity test. Each baselinetest was conducted on a separate day with 24 h between tests. Subjectsin the training group also underwent a muscle biopsy procedure 3 daysafter the baseline cycle endurance capacity test and several daysbefore the start of the training intervention. For the biopsy procedure,the area over the lateral portion of one thigh was anesthetized (2%lidocaine, AstraZeneca Canada, Ontario, Canada), and a small inci-sion was made through the skin and underlying fascia to permit atissue sample (50–100 mg) to be obtained from the vastus lateralismuscle (1). Details regarding the experimental protocol are summa-rized in Fig. 1.
Training.
Training was initiated 3–5 days after the baseline musclebiopsy procedure and consisted of six sessions of sprint intervaltraining spread over 14 days. Each training session consisted of repeated 30-s “all-out” efforts on an electronically braked cycleergometer (Lode) against a resistance equivalent to 0.075 kg/kg bodymass (i.e., a Wingate test). Subjects were instructed to begin pedalingas fast as possible against the ergometer’s inertial resistance,
2 sbefore the appropriate load was applied by a computer interfaced withthe ergometer and loaded with appropriate software (Wingate soft-ware version 1.11, Lode). Subjects were verbally encouraged tocontinue pedaling as fast as possible throughout the 30-s test. Peak power, mean power and fatigue index were subsequently determinedusing an online data acquisition system. During the 4-min recoveryperiod between tests, subjects remained on the bike and either restedor were permitted to cycle at a low cadence (
50 rpm) against a lightresistance (
30 W) to reduce venous pooling in the lower extremitiesand minimize feelings of light-headedness or nausea. The trainingprotocol consisted of exercise performed three times per week onalternate days (i.e., Monday, Wednesday, Friday) for 2 wk. Thenumber of Wingate tests performed each day during training increased
Table 1.
Subject characteristics
Training Group Control Group
Age, yr 22
1 25
2Weight, kg 83
5 79
2Height, cm 180
4 180
2V˙
O
2 peak 
, ml
kg
1
min
1
44.6
3.2 46.4
1.4Values are means
SE for 8 subjects. V˙
O
2 peak 
, peak oxygen uptake.Fig. 1. Overview of experimental protocol. V˙
O
2 peak 
, peak oxygen uptake;PRE, preexercise; POST, postexercise; SIT, sprint interval training. Numbersin boxes denote number of Wingate tests completed during each of 6 trainingsessions over a 2-wk period.
1986
ADAPTATIONS TO SHORT SPRINT INTERVAL TRAINING
 J Appl Physiol
VOL 98
JUNE 2005
www.jap.org
  on J  un e 5  , 0  0  9  j   a p. p y  s i   ol   o g y . o g ownl   o a d  e d f   om 

Activity (3)

You've already reviewed this. Edit your review.
1 thousand reads
1 hundred reads
ascham liked this

You're Reading a Free Preview

Download
/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->