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Household & Public Health

Household & Public Health

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Published by mdoll
Master gardener course
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Published by: mdoll on Oct 22, 2009
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12/07/2009

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SPIDERS
Ralph E. Williams and Gary W. Bennett, Extension Entomologists 
The poison of the black widow affects the nervoussystem of humans. Persons bitten may experience avariety of symptoms, such as dizziness, blurred vision,breathing difficulty, nausea and severe pain around thewound. In such instances, a physician should be con-tacted immediately.The black widow lives in undisturbed locations, suchas under rocks and boards, and in and around old build-ings. She is active on her irregular web during the day.The Black Widow,
Latrodectus mactans 
(Fabricius)Spiders are familiar to everyone. They are closelyrelated to ticks, mites, and daddy longlegs, all of whichhave eight legs and two body regions. Insects, on theother hand, have six legs and three body regions.Some people have the idea that all spiders arepoisonous or dangerous to handle, but this is not true. Theonly spiders found in Indiana capable of inflicting seriousinjury to humans are the black widow and the brownrecluse or “fiddleback” spider. Neither spider will biteunless disturbed.There are nearly 400 species of spiders in Indiana.They live almost everywhere, including inside homes andbuildings.Spiders feed entirely upon living insects or animalssmall enough for them to catch. They usually lie in wait fortheir prey, and many build webs to trap them. The websare made of fine silken threads produced by “spinnerets”located near the end of the spider’s abdomen. The silk issecreted in liquid form, which hardens when exposed tothe air. Spiders use the silk not only to make webs, butalso to line their nests, construct egg sacs, and make“parachutes” on which some species travel for greatdistances.Spiders reproduce by laying eggs contained in an eggsac. These sacs are usually ball-shaped and may becarried by the female wherever she goes. Some specieshide their sacs in the web or tuck them away elsewhere.Egg sacs frequently contain several hundred eggs.
SPIDERS OF MOST CONCERNBlack Widow Spider
The female black widow is jet black in color and, withits legs extended, would about cover a penny. The abdo-men is spherical and, in the female only, is marked on theunderside with a red or yellow “hour glass.” There may bea few red spots also on top of the abdomen.
Household & Public Health
Department of Entomology 
E-72
red hourglass
Brown Recluse Spider
The mature brown recluse spider has a body about 3/ 8 inch long and 3/16 inch wide. The leg span is about thesize of a half dollar. The overall color is light tan to deepreddish brown. The distinguishing mark is a darker con-trasting brown fiddle-shaped area on the front half of the

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