II. The Civil Engineering II. The Civil Eng
Profession . . .Profession . . .
1)evolved from military/ fortifications engineering in the pasti.e. the term “engineering” came into use possibly only in thelast 450 years while the term “civil engineering” isapparently only about 170 years old;2)encompassed many modern-day professions includinggeodetic & sanitary engineering i.e. alreadysegregatedfromthe recognized modern-day scope of the practice of civilengineering in the Philippines
;3)hasNEVER ever encompassed or subsumed theseparate
profession of architecture in the history of civilization; and4)is internationally associated with
and is dictionary-definedas the profession most related to
roads, bridges, dams, civilworks, etc. and with theconstructionof
andneverthearchitecturalplanning nor design of