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plant water treatment

plant water treatment

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Published by: aesha89 on Oct 22, 2009
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02/01/2013

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PLANT WATER TREATMENT

SITI AISHAH BINTI ABDUL LATIFF
NOOR AZLINA BINTI MUHAMAD ARIFFIN
NOR FATIHAH BT MD NOR
SUZIATI BINTI IBRAHIM

PLANT PHYSIOLOGY
FACULTY OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY
UNIVERSITI PENDIDIKAN SULTAN IDRIS
PERAK DARUL RIDZUAN

Abstract

The purpose of this mini project is to analyze which plant can help to treat waste water efficiently. Plants that live in various type of habitat must have the relation with its environment such as water. Six species of plants had been chosen as plants sample to treat drain water as waste water sample. All the plants sample were took around Tanjung Malim, Perak and Sungai Besar, Selangor . The study is done by using experiment method. The scale to analyze the rate of water treatment is the Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD), Dissolved Oxygen (DO), pH, Total Suspended Solid (TSS) and Turbidity.

Treatment using Limnocharis flava (L.) sp. of drain water exhibited the greatest BOD reduction efficiency which is -3.4 mg/L; whereas lowest efficiency was found in the untreated drain water before filtration which is a control without plants, i.e., only 12.0 mg/L. For Cyperus alternifolius

sp., Portulaca oleracea sp., Oryza sativa sp., Salvinia natans sp.and Axonopus compressussp.
is 6.87, 5.27, 5.74, 6.71 and 6.06 respectively. The pH for untreated water is 5.09 for before
filtration and 5.26 for untreated water after filtration. While calculation of TSS for Salvinia natans
sp. shows that 1.0382 g for initial and 1.0550 g for final. The differences between final and initial

reading give 0.0168 g. The Salvinia natans sp. is the greatest compare to the untreated water after filtration which only 0.0217 g. Next, use Limnocharis flava (L.)sp. exhibited the greatest reducing DO which is 21.5 mg/L for DO in first day treatment and 9.5mg/L after 5 days treatment water. For turbidity, use of the Salvinia natans sp. only show 20.60 NTU compared to the untreated water drain after filtration is 223 NTU. It shows that lowest decrease between the other plants. Based on regression analysis, use of Limnocharis flava (L.) sp. in drain water treatment show the best result in BOD, pH and DO and reach the established environmental quality standards, i.e., -3.4 mg/L in BOD, 6.93 in pH and 5.6 mg/L for first day DO and 9.0 mg/L for 5th day DO. In contrast, Portulaca oleracea sp. is not suitable for because 5.90 mg/L, 5.74 for pH and 18.0 mg/L for first day DO and 12.1 mg/L and DO 5th day. The data resulting from the experiment was analyze by using data logging apparatus and the data got shown that there are some plants that can treat water better than other samples.

Overall results of this study suggest that Limnocharis flava (L.) sp in water treatment have
potential to be developed as an alternative water treatment. In general, Limnocharis flava (L.)
sp exhibited greater efficiency than Portulaca oleracea sp. . It is proven that plants can be used
as subject for water treatment process.
Introduction

We consider wastewater treatment as water use because it is so interconnected with the other uses of water. Much of the water used by homes, industries, and businesses must be treated before it is released back to the environment. Wastewater is used water. It includes substances such as human waste, food scraps, oils, soaps and chemicals. In homes, this includes water from sinks, showers, bathtubs, toilets, washing machines and dishwashers. Businesses and industries also contribute their share of used water that must be cleaned. Wastewater also includes storm runoff. Although some people assume that the rain that runs down the street during a storm is fairly clean, it isn't. Harmful substances that wash off roads, parking lots, and rooftops can harm our rivers and lakes. If all of this wastewater are not been treated, it will cause a lot of waste.

Plant water treatment describes the treatment of environmental problems through the use of plants which mitigate the environmental problem without the need to excavate the contaminant material and dispose of it elsewhere. Plant water treatment also known as Phytoremediation. Phytoremediation consists in mitigating pollutant concentrations in contaminated soils, water or air with plants able to contain, degrade or eliminate metals, pesticides, solvents, explosives, crude oil and its derivatives, and various other contaminants, from the media that contain them. Plants may break down or degrade organic pollutants, or remove and stabilize metal contaminants. Plants which can be used to treat wastewater can decrease the level of pollution until a suitable level which is a condition that nature can handle.

Phytoremediation works best at sites with low to medium amounts of pollution. Plants remove harmful chemicals from the ground when their roots take in water and nutrients from polluted soil, streams, and groundwater. Plants can clean up chemicals as deep as their roots can grow. Once the chemicals or any other material are absorbed by these plants, they will still stored in the plant\u2019s roots, stems and also leaves. Then, these all material will changed into less harmful material once they are remain in the plant body. Other than that, they also will changed into gases that are released into the air as the plant transpires.

There are a lot of plants species that can be used to clean and treat the wastewater, such as sunflower, kangkung, kiambang, ketapang, paddy and a variety of grasses. But, each plant has their own role on how they are useful in treated the wastewater. Besides, they also have their own efficiency to treat the wastewater.

Objectives
This mini project was done based on several objectives that have been distinguished. The
objectives are:
i.
To distinguish the plants that can be used for water treatment.
ii.
To identify the efficency of the water treatment by plant.
iii.
To apply the concept of water treatment.
Issues
This mini project was done to answer some questions above:
i.
What are the plants that can be used for water treatment?
ii.
What plant is more efficient in water treatment?
iii.
How did we apply the concept of water treatment?
iv.
Why we have to apply the concept of water treatment?
Significance

Most of water sources around Malaysia like river, beach and stream are contaminated and polluted with many sort of things, like rubbish and other chemicals. In the majority of cases, these sites are not cleaned up because the process need higher cost and can cause higher environmental damage. The using of plant to treat the wastewater only needed lower budget rather than the used of the highest technologies. In many cases phytoremediation has been found to be less than half the price of alternative methods. Besides, the used of plant also maybe will cause nothing or only a small damage to our environment and the ecosystem. Plant water treatment, a plant-based technology, offers cost-effective and environment friendly alternative to physical methods. So, it is more likely to be accepted by the public as it is more aesthetically pleasing than traditional methods. In other hand, based on this research we can save water, which the wastewater and polluted water can be reused after a period of time and the treated water are save to be used again. Then, the process of plant water treatment is easily to be handling and monitored. This process only using a simple and easy technique which is can be handled by students. Plant water treatment is an energy efficient, aesthically pleasing method of remediation sites with low to moderate levels of contamination and it can be used in conjunction with other more traditional remedial methods as a finishing step to the remedial process. Moreover, this process also can be use to clean up more than one pollution at one time. So, more pollution can be settled in a short time period. This allows workers to avoid

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